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Table 1 Published studies testing a possible intervention effect of electronic-medication monitoring on typical medication-taking behavior

From: Examining assumptions regarding valid electronic monitoring of medication therapy: development of a validation framework and its application on a European sample of kidney transplant patients

Author & publication year Study design Description of the sample n EM Description of the intervention Outcome variable: medication adherence or clinical outcome Result
Wagner et al. 2002 Randomized controlled trial A community convenience sample of adult HIV-positive patients on HAART 117 MEMS Experimental group received EM; control group did not Adherence measured with self-report 4 weeks after study start (% of prescribed pills taken) Less adherence in the EM group (91%) than in the control group (94%; p=.73)
  Pre-post intervention study A community convenience sample of adult HIV-positive patients on HAART monitored with EM 60 MEMS EM started after baseline blood pressure measurement Adherence measured with self-report at baseline and after 4 weeks Less adherence after introducing EM (91%) compared to baseline (93%; p=.16)
Bertholet et al. 2000 Pre-post intervention study A convenience sample of primary care/hypertensive clinic patients with therapy-resistant hypertension 69 MEMS EM started after baseline blood pressure measurement Clinical outcome: blood pressure evaluation after 1 – 2 months Blood pressure was lower after EM (14/9 cm Hg) compared to baseline (16/10 cm Hg; p < .001)
Matsui et al. 1994 Pre-post intervention study A convenience sample of young β-thalassemia outpatients on a new iron chelator 10 MEMS The purpose of EM was disclosed to patients after ± 11 months Adherence measured by EM using the taking adherence parameter ± 18 months after disclosure Greater adherence after disclosure (84%) compared to before (77%; p=.49)
Yeung et al. 1994 Quasi-experimental study Non-equivalent study: two convenience samples of asthma patients on inhaling therapy 21 MDI Intervention group given disclosure; control group not given disclosure Adherence measured by EM using the taking adherence parameter after 2 – 3 weeks from the study start Greater adherence in the disclosed group (81%) than in the undisclosed group (71%; p=.53)
Elixhauser et al. 1990 Randomized controlled trial A convenience sample of psychiatric outpatients treated with lithium 90 Blister package Experimental group received EM; control group did not Adherence measured by self-reported, assay, % of expected prescription refills (after 2 – 4 months of study start) Fewer expected prescription refills in the EM group (18%) than in the control group (31%; p < .01)
Cramer et al. 1990 Observational study An unspecified sample of patients 24 MEMS All patients received EM Adherence measured by EM using the taking adherence parameter during the first and after a mean of 7 months from the start of the study No difference before and after (79% vs. 79%).