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Table 2 Summary of univariable and multivariable regression analyses for sensitivity/specificity and likelihood ratios of the Papanicolaou smear test (only p-values less than 0.20 are presented)

From: A methodological framework to distinguish spectrum effects from spectrum biases and to assess diagnostic and screening test accuracy for patient populations: Application to the Papanicolaou cervical cancer smear test

  Univariable analyses Multivariable analyses
  Clinical reading Optimized interpretation Clinical reading Optimized interpretation
  Sensitivity Specificity† Likelihood ratios‡ Sensitivity Specificity† Likelihood ratios‡ Sensitivity Specificity† Likelihood ratios‡ Sensitivity Specificity† Likelihood ratios‡
Variables Main effect Interaction Main effect Interaction Main effect Interaction Main effect Interaction Main effect Interaction Main effect Interaction Main effect Interaction Main effect Interaction
HPV test <0.001 0.03 <0.001 0.033 <0.001 0.18 <0.001 0.18 <0.001 0.09 <0.001 0.011 <0.001 0.15 <0.001 0.17
Study setting <0.001 0.10 0.001 0.11 <0.001 - 0.023 - <0.001 0.14 0.015 - <0.001 -   
Age 0.001 0.06 - 0.07 0.04 - 0.12 - 0.026 -    0.045 - 0.047 -
Current smoking 0.03 - - - - - - -         
European origin <0.001 - - - 0.17 - - -         
Educational level <0.001 0.035 - 0.043 0.014 - - -         
Postmenopausal - - - - - 0.17 - -         
Contraceptive status - - - - - - - -         
  1. HPV: human papillomavirus.
  2. † For the sensitivity/specificity model: interaction between the variable and the reference standard (see Additional file 1)
  3. ‡ For the likelihood ratios model: interaction between the variable and the diagnostic test (see Additional file 1).