Skip to main content


Figure 7 | BMC Medical Research Methodology

Figure 7

From: Reducing bias through directed acyclic graphs

Figure 7

a-b. Figure 7a represents the causal diagram in Figure 6b after step 5 (dark dotted line represents the additional conditional association due to the new causal link in figure 6b), and Figure 7b shows the result after step 6 if one conditions on Tissue Weakness, Neuromuscular Fatigue, Previous Injury and Contact Sport. The presence of a path through the variables Warm-up Exercise, Pre-game proprioception (directly, or indirectly through Team Motivation/Aggression) and Intra-game proprioception to Injury means that we would still obtain a biased estimate for the causal effect of warm-up on the risk of injury.

Back to article page