Skip to main content

Advertisement

Table 2 Standardized mean differences (SMD) for changes from baseline grouped by patient- and observer-reported outcome.

From: Spontaneous improvement in randomised clinical trials: meta-analysis of three-armed trials comparing no treatment, placebo and active intervention

  No. of treatment arms SMD (95% confidence interval) I2 (%)
No treatment    
Observer-reported 11 -0.28 (-0.56 to -0.01) 20
Patient-reported 26 -0.22 (-0.36 to -0.09) 30
Placebo    
Observer-reported 11 -0.50 (-0.81 to -0.20) 40
Patient-reported 26 -0.42 (-0.62 to -0.22) 63
Active treatment    
Observer-reported 16 -0.92 (-1.22 to -0.62) 56
Patient-reported 36 -1.04 (-1.22 to -0.87) 59