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Table 3 Standardized mean differences (SMD) for changes from baseline grouped by acute or chronic condition.

From: Spontaneous improvement in randomised clinical trials: meta-analysis of three-armed trials comparing no treatment, placebo and active intervention

  No. of treatment arms SMD (95% confidence Interval) I2 (%)
No treatment    
Acute 10 -0.56 (-0.85 to -0.26) 41
Chronic 27 -0.24 (-0.33 to -0.14) 0
Placebo    
Acute 10 -0.65 (-1.03 to -0.27) 65
Chronic 27 -0.37(-0.55 to -0.19) 54
Active treatment    
Acute 10 -1.63 (-2.11 to -1.15) 73
Chronic 42 -0.88 (-1.03 to -0.74) 45