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Table 6 The influence child's gender on the recalled parental rearing

From: The assessment of recalled parental rearing behavior and its relationship to life satisfaction and interpersonal problems: a general population study

  Child's gender     
  female male d t df p(t)
  M (SD) M (SD)     
Parental rejection and punishment 11.85 (3.73) 12.39 (3.79) -.14 3.79 1/2766 .00
Parental emotional warmth 20.07 (4.28) 19.63 (3.93) -.11 -2.81 2703.97 .00
Father's rejection and punishment 11.91 (4.14) 12.81 (4.33) -.21 5.59 1/2769 .00
Mother's rejection and punishment 11.79 (3.97) 11.98 (3.92) -.05 1.27 2869 .21
Father's emotional warmth 19.05 (4.70) 18.32 (4.34) -.16 4.22 2702.71 .00
Mother's emotional warmth 21.08 (4.53) 20.96 (4.26) -.04 -.74 2869 .46
  1. M ... mean
  2. SD ... standard deviation
  3. d ... effect sizes
  4. p(t)... significance of mean differences between perceived paternal and maternal rearing (t-test for paired samples)