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Table 1 Original QUADAS items and additional questions used in the neuroimaging review.

From: Quality assessment of diagnostic before-after studies: development of methodology in the context of a systematic review

Original QUADAS item Additions for the structural neuroimaging review
1. Was the spectrum of patients representative of the patients who will receive the test in practice?  
2. Were selection criteria clearly described? A. Were patients recruited consecutively?
3. Is the reference standard likely to correctly classify the target condition? Removed for the neuro-imaging review
4. Is the time period between reference standard and index test short enough to be reasonably sure that the target condition did not change between the two tests?  
5. Did the whole sample or a random selection of the sample, receive verification using a reference standard of diagnosis?  
6. Did patients receive the same reference standard regardless of the index test result?  
7. Was the reference standard independent of the index test (the index test did not form part of the reference standard)? Removed for the neuro-imaging review
8. Was the execution of the index test described in sufficient detail to permit replication of the test?  
9. Was the execution of the reference standard described in sufficient detail to permit replication of the test? D. Who performed the clinical evaluation and image analysis?
10. Were the index test results interpreted without knowledge of the results of the reference standard? C. Was the study and/or collection of clinical variables conducted prospectively?
11. Were the reference standard results interpreted without knowledge of the results of the index test?  
12. Were the same clinical data available when test results were interpreted as would be available when the test is used in practice?  
13. Were uninterpretatable/intermediate test results reported?  
14. Were withdrawals from the study explained? B What was the explanation for patients who did not receive CT or MRI?
  1. *Index test – tests before MRI/CT, Reference test – MRI/CT