Skip to main content

Table 2 Univariable analysis of variables from history and physical examination

From: Predictive modeling in pediatric traumatic brain injury using machine learning

  Traumatic brain injury (Cases) N = 39 No traumatic brain injury (Controls) N = 156 p-value*
History
Loss of consciousness 25 (64%) 8 (5%) <0.001
If Yes, then number who lost consciousness for > 1 minute (%) 24 (96%) 4 (50%) <0.001
Difficult arousal (%) 27 (70%) 3 (2%) <0.001
Vomiting (%) 11 (28%) 26 (17%) 0.113
Seizure activity (%) 6 (15%) 0 (0%) <0.001
Confusion/Disorientation (%) 33 (85%) 3 (2%) <0.001
(Preverbal) irritability (%) (N = 7 vs 22) 0 (0%) 1 (5%) 1
(Verbal) Headache (%) (N = 32 vs 130) 8 (25%) 45 (35%) 0.401
(Verbal) Amnesia (%) (N = 32 vs 131) 1 (3%) 6 (5%) 1
Physical examination
Signs of altered mental status (%) 36 (95%) 1 (1%) <0.001
Presence of unequal pupils (%) (26%) (1%) <0.001
Clinical signs of skull fracture (%) 2 (5%) 1 (1%) 0.103
Signs of base of skull fracture (%) 13 (33%) 4 (3%) <0.001
Presence of scalp hematoma (%) 20 (51%) 36 (23%) <0.001
Frontal (%) (N = 20 vs 36) 1 (5%) 13 (36%) 0.011
Presence of scalp laceration 7 (18%) 32 (21%) 0.825
(Preverbal) with open fontanelle (N = 7 vs 22) 4 (57%) 17 (77%) 0.357
Presence of tense fontanelle among those with open fontanelles (N = 4 vs 17) 3 (75%) 0 (0%) 0.03
  1. *Chi-Square or Fisher Test when appropriate.