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Table 1 The denominator degrees of freedom of GLMM Wald F test by different approximation methods in the simulations under the framework of CRTs

From: Comparing denominator degrees of freedom approximations for the generalized linear mixed model in analyzing binary outcome in small sample cluster-randomized trials

Methods Estimated denominator degrees of freedom
Residual \( {\displaystyle \sum_{i=1}^K}{n}_i-2 \)
Containment \( {\displaystyle \sum_{i=1}^K}{n}_i-K \)
Between-Within K − 2
Satterthwaite d, estimated from data
Kenward-Roger d, estimated from data