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Table 1 Factor loadings (λ) and thresholds (τ) of GHQ-12 and Affectometer-2 items

From: An evaluation of computerized adaptive testing for general psychological distress: combining GHQ-12 and Affectometer-2 in an item bank for public mental health research

Item Abbreviated item wording M-1 model Updated model
λ gen λ pos τ1 τ 2 τ 3 τ 4 λ gen λ posAff λ posGHQ τ1 τ 2 τ 3 τ 4
GHQ 1 Able to concentrate 0.68 −0.12 −1.30 1.01 1.89 - 0.58 - 0.60 −1.30 1.01 1.89 -
GHQ 2 Lost sleep 0.66 - −0.14 0.87 1.59 - 0.67 - - −0.14 0.87 1.59 -
GHQ 3 Play useful part 0.60 −0.14 −0.99 1.24 1.91 - 0.50 - 0.54 −0.99 1.24 1.91 -
GHQ 4 Making decisions 0.65 −0.24 −1.08 1.40 2.14 - 0.52 - 0.61 −1.08 1.40 2.14 -
GHQ 5 Under strain 0.73 - −0.45 0.76 1.63 - 0.74 - - −0.45 0.76 1.63 -
GHQ 6 Overcome difficulties 0.76 - 0.01 1.15 1.75 - 0.77 - - 0.01 1.15 1.75 -
GHQ 7 Enjoy day-to-day activities 0.65 −0.15 −1.24 0.97 1.75 - 0.56 - 0.49 −1.24 0.97 1.75 -
GHQ 8 Able to face problems 0.64 −0.22 −1.06 1.30 2.04 - 0.50 - 0.68 −1.06 1.30 2.04 -
GHQ 9 Unhappy 0.86 - 0.00 0.93 1.62 - 0.87 - - 0.00 0.93 1.62 -
GHQ 10 Lose confidence 0.79 - 0.14 1.02 1.77 - 0.81 - - 0.14 1.02 1.77 -
GHQ 11 Worthless person 0.86 - 0.58 1.38 1.98 - 0.88 - - 0.58 1.38 1.98 -
GHQ 12 Reasonably happy 0.63 −0.14 −1.01 1.10 1.89 - 0.54 - 0.53 −1.01 1.10 1.89 -
Aff 1 Life on the right track 0.70 0.43 −1.08 0.00 0.53 1.29 0.68 0.46 - −1.08 0.00 0.53 1.29
Aff 2 Change life 0.67 - −0.83 0.14 0.74 1.64 0.68 - - −0.83 0.14 0.74 1.64
Aff 3 Future looks good 0.62 0.44 −1.27 −0.11 0.48 1.32 0.60 0.47 - −1.27 −0.11 0.48 1.32
Aff 4 Best years are over 0.63 - −0.01 0.66 1.16 1.67 0.64 - - −0.01 0.66 1.16 1.67
Aff 5 Like yourself 0.48 0.49 −1.01 −0.06 0.57 1.36 0.46 0.50 - −1.01 −0.06 0.57 1.36
Aff 6 Something wrong 0.77 - 0.27 0.91 1.41 2.10 0.78 - - 0.27 0.91 1.41 2.10
Aff 7 Handle problems 0.48 0.36 −0.85 0.18 0.75 1.53 0.45 0.40 - −0.85 0.18 0.75 1.53
Aff 8 Failure 0.88 - 0.39 1.07 1.46 2.22 0.89 - - 0.39 1.07 1.46 2.22
Aff 9 Loved and trusted 0.53 0.51 −0.45 0.54 1.02 1.64 0.51 0.53 - −0.45 0.54 1.02 1.64
Aff 10 Left alone 0.61 - 0.28 0.95 1.47 2.22 0.62 - - 0.28 0.95 1.47 2.22
Aff 11 Close to people 0.52 0.54 −0.48 0.56 0.99 1.81 0.50 0.57 - −0.48 0.56 0.99 1.81
Aff 12 Lost interest 0.72 - 0.56 1.12 1.77 2.62 0.73 - - 0.56 1.12 1.77 2.62
Aff 13 Do whatever want 0.49 0.33 −1.26 −0.39 0.28 0.97 0.46 0.37 - −1.26 −0.39 0.28 0.97
Aff 14 Life stuck 0.81 - −0.27 0.56 1.04 1.67 0.82 - - −0.27 0.56 1.04 1.67
Aff 15 Energy to spare 0.42 0.21 −1.98 −0.92 −0.08 0.83 0.40 0.27 - −1.98 −0.92 −0.08 0.83
Aff 16 Can’t be bothered 0.66 - −0.68 0.46 1.08 2.14 0.67 - - −0.68 0.46 1.08 2.14
Aff 17 Smiling a lot 0.58 0.30 −1.33 0.04 0.65 1.62 0.56 0.35 - −1.33 0.04 0.65 1.62
Aff 18 Nothing fun 0.69 - −0.11 0.80 1.33 2.01 0.70 - - −0.11 0.80 1.33 2.01
Aff 19 Thinking creatively 0.53 0.48 −1.19 0.02 0.66 1.58 0.51 0.50 - −1.19 0.02 0.66 1.58
Aff 20 Thoughts useless 0.76 - −0.03 0.65 1.27 2.10 0.77 - - −0.03 0.65 1.27 2.10
Aff 21 Satisfied 0.66 0.47 −1.37 −0.02 0.60 1.63 0.64 0.50 - −1.37 −0.02 0.60 1.63
Aff 22 Optimistic 0.44 0.44 −1.44 −0.16 0.43 1.36 0.43 0.43 - −1.44 −0.16 0.43 1.36
Aff 23 Useful 0.51 0.41 −1.13 0.18 0.82 1.70 0.49 0.45 - −1.13 0.18 0.82 1.70
Aff 24 Confident 0.62 0.45 −1.17 0.05 0.71 1.59 0.61 0.47 - −1.17 0.05 0.71 1.59
Aff 25 Understood 0.41 0.41 −1.28 0.01 0.79 1.58 0.40 0.41 - −1.28 0.01 0.79 1.58
Aff 26 Interested in others 0.40 0.46 −0.77 0.40 0.92 1.74 0.37 0.50 - −0.77 0.40 0.92 1.74
Aff 27 Relaxed 0.67 0.29 −1.37 −0.10 0.56 1.48 0.66 0.31 - −1.37 −0.10 0.56 1.48
Aff 28 Enthusiastic 0.55 0.46 −1.51 −0.18 0.50 1.50 0.53 0.50 - −1.51 −0.18 0.50 1.50
Aff 29 Good natured 0.46 0.45 −0.85 0.47 1.09 2.18 0.43 0.49 - −0.85 0.47 1.09 2.18
Aff 30 Clear headed 0.53 0.48 −0.86 0.29 0.82 1.67 0.51 0.49 - −0.86 0.29 0.82 1.67
Aff 31 Discontented 0.73 - −0.29 0.67 1.27 2.04 0.74 - - −0.29 0.67 1.27 2.04
Aff 32 Hopeless 0.86 - 0.47 1.06 1.60 2.26 0.87 - - 0.47 1.06 1.60 2.26
Aff 33 Insignificant 0.80 - 0.32 1.05 1.59 2.22 0.81 - - 0.32 1.05 1.59 2.22
Aff 34 Helpless 0.78 - 0.44 1.07 1.55 2.18 0.79 - - 0.44 1.07 1.55 2.18
Aff 35 Lonely 0.68 - 0.13 0.87 1.26 2.07 0.69 - - 0.13 0.87 1.26 2.07
Aff 36 Withdrawn 0.83 - 0.23 0.91 1.49 2.26 0.84 - - 0.23 0.91 1.49 2.26
Aff 37 Tense 0.67 - −0.72 0.32 0.94 1.83 0.68 - - −0.72 0.32 0.94 1.83
Aff 38 Depressed 0.86 - 0.10 0.79 1.25 1.83 0.87 - - 0.10 0.79 1.25 1.83
Aff 39 Impatient 0.41 - −1.09 0.16 0.87 2.18 0.41 - - −1.09 0.16 0.87 2.18
Aff 40 Confused 0.65 - 0.14 1.00 1.58 2.31 0.66 - - 0.14 1.00 1.58 2.31