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Table 2 Summary of features from studies employing a stepped wedge design

From: Stepped wedge cluster randomised trials: a review of the statistical methodology used and available

First Author Type of SWD n clusters (n steps) Statistical analysis method used for primary outcome (Distribution of outcome) Adjusted for time Sample size estimation Publication phase
Aoun [110]
Aoun [111]
Aoun [112]
Aoun [113]
Austin [114]
Grande [115]
Cohort 3 (3) GLMM (Normal) Yes Yes: Cluster Design Effect Adjustment Results
Lo [116] Cross sectional 54 (3) GLMM (Binomial) Unknown Unknown Results
Bacchieri [47] Cohort 42 (2) GLM with RVE (Poisson) Yes Yes: No Clustering adjustment Results
Badenbroek [76] Cohort 40 (4) Not Mentioned Unknown Yes: Cluster Design Effect Adjustment Protocol
Bailet [117] Cross sectional 174 (2) GLMM (Normal) Yes No Results
Bailey [77] Cohort 4 (4) Unknown Unknown Unknown Results
Bailey [82] Cross sectional 6 (6) GEE Few clusters adjustment (Binomial) Yes Yes: Simulated Results
Banga [78] Cross sectional 4 (4) Not Mentioned Unknown Yes: Woertman method Protocol
Barton [59]
Somerville [58]
Cohort 119 (2) Mann–Whitney U/ANCOVA (Normal) Yes Yes: No Clustering adjustment Results
Bashour [118] Cross sectional 4 (4) GLMM (Normal) Yes Yes: Hussey/Hughes method Results
Bennett [119] Cohort 15 (3) GLMM (Normal) No Yes: Cluster Design Effect Adjustment Protocol
Bernabe-Ortiz [120] Cross sectional 6 (6) GEE (Normal) No Yes: Hussey/Hughes method Protocol
Bouwsma [51] Cohort 9 (9) Cox PH models with gamma random effects (Time to Event) Yes Yes: Hussey/Hughes method Protocol
Brimblecombe [80] Cross sectional 20 (4) GLMM (Normal) Yes Yes: Simulated Protocol
Brown [121] Cross sectional 9 (5) GEE (Binomial) Unknown Yes: Cluster Design Effect Adjustment Protocol
Brownell [122] Cohort 20 (5) GLMM (Binomial) Yes No Results
Chavane [123] Cross sectional 10 (10) GLMM (Binomial) Unknown Yes: Cluster Design Effect Adjustment Protocol
Chinbuah [124]
Chinbuah [125]
Cross sectional 114 (2) GLMM (Poisson/Binomial) No Yes: Cluster Design Effect Adjustment Results
Ciliberto [71]
Patel [73]
Cohort 7 (6) GLM (Binomial)/Unspecified Survival Analysis (Time to Event) No Yes: No Clustering adjustment Results
Cowan [65] Cross sectional 6 (3) GLM fixed effect for cluster (Binomial) Yes Yes: Hussey/Hughes method Protocol
Crain [126]
Solberg [127]
Cohort 96 (5) GLMM (Not specified) Yes No Protocol
Craine [66] Cross sectional 5 (5) GLM fixed effect for cluster (Binomial) Yes Yes: Hussey/Hughes method Results
Dainty [128]
Morrison [129]
Cross sectional 32 (4) GEE (Binomial) Yes Yes: Hussey/Hughes method Results
De Allegri [130]
Gnawali [131]
Cohort 33 (3) GLMM (Binomial) Yes Yes: Cluster Design Effect Adjustment Results
Dilworth [61]
Turner [132]
Cross sectional 5 (5) GEE/Discourse Mapping (Normal) No Yes: Cluster Design Effect Adjustment Protocol
Doherty [55] Cross sectional 55 (2) χ2 test for trend (Multinomial)/Kruskal-Wallis (Nonparametric) No Yes: Details not clear Results
Dreischulte [133] Cohort 40 (10) GLMM (Binomial) Yes Yes: Details not clear Protocol
Dryden-Peterson [134] Cross sectional 20 (10) GEE (Binomial) Yes Yes: Details not clear Results
Due [53] Cohort 189 (2) T-test (Normal) No Yes: Details not clear Results
Duijster [135]
Monse [136]
Cohort 13 (2) GLMM (Normal) Yes No Results
Durovni [49]
Golub [50]
Moulton [26]
Cross sectional 29 (14) GLM with Scale Parameter (Poisson)/Cox PH with either Bootstrap SE, RVE or gamma random effect (Time to event) Yes Yes: Moulton Results
Durovni [137]
Trajman [138]
Cross sectional 14 (7) GLMM (Poisson and Binomial) Yes Yes: Moulton Results
Emond [139] Cross sectional 9 (3) GLMM (Normal and Binomial Yes Yes: Hussey/Hughes method Protocol
Enns [140] Cross sectional 4 (4) GEE (Poisson) Yes No Results
Etchells [141] Cross sectional 2 (2) GLMM (Normal and Binomial No No Results
Fernald [142] Cohort 506 (2) GLM adjusting for sampling design and clustering (Normal and Binomial) No Yes: Cluster Design Effect Adjustment Results
Franklin [143] Cross sectional 15 (5) GLMM (Binomial) Yes Yes: Details not clear Results
Fuller [81] Cross sectional 60 (5) GLMM (Binomial) Yes Yes: Simulated Results
Gambia Hepatitis Study Group [14] Cross sectional 17 (16) Not Mentioned Unknown Yes: No Clustering adjustment Protocol
Gerritsen [144]
Leontjevas [145]
Leontjevas [146]
Leontjevas [147]
Cohort 5 (5) GLMM (Normal and Binomial) Yes Yes: Hussey/Hughes method Results
Golden [34] Cross sectional 23 (4) GLMM/GEE (Binomial/Poisson) Yes Yes: Hussey/Hughes method Results
Groshaus [67] Cohort 6 (6) GLM fixed effect for cluster (Normal and Binomial) No No Results
Gruber [148] Cohort 24 (6) GEE with RVE (Binomial) Yes Yes: Hussey/Hughes method Results
Grunewaldt [54] Cohort 20 (2) χ2 tests (Binomial)/t-tests (Normal) No No Results
Gucciardi [149] Cross sectional 4 (3) GLMM/GEE (Binomial) Yes Yes: Cluster Design Effect Adjustment Protocol
Haines [150] Cross sectional 6 (6) GLMM (Normal) Yes Yes: Hussey/Hughes method Protocol
Haugen [74] Cross sectional 5 (5) GLM (Binomial) Yes Yes: Details not clear Results
Haukka [151] Cross sectional 9 (4) Unspecified Survival Analysis (Time to event)/GEE (Normal) No No Protocol
Hayden [152] Cohort 4 (4) GLMM (Binomial) Yes Yes: Details not clear Results
Hill [153]
Hill
Cross sectional 8 (4) GLM RVE (Negative Binomial and Binomial) Yes Yes: Cluster Design Effect Adjustment Results
Horner [154] Cohort 65 (3) GLMM (Binomial) Yes No Results
Howlin [155] Cohort 18 (2) GLMM (Ordinal) No Yes: Cluster Design Effect Adjustment Results
Hunter [156] Cross sectional 8 (2) GLMM (Binomial) No Yes: Cluster Design Effect Adjustment Protocol
Husaini [157] Cohort 45 (2) GLMM (Binomial) No No Results
Kelly [68] Cross sectional 4 (4) GLM fixed effect for cluster or Bootstrap SE (Normal) Yes Yes: Cluster Design Effect Adjustment Protocol
Keriel-Gascou [98] Cross sectional 8 (4) GLMM (Binomial) Yes Yes: Hussey/Hughes method Protocol
Killam [158] Cross sectional 8 (8) GEE (Binomial) Yes No Results
Kitson [159]
Schultz [160]
Cross sectional 25 (4) GLMM (Normal) Yes Yes: Hussey/Hughes method Results
Kjeken [161] Cohort 6 (6) GLMM (Normal) Yes Yes: Cluster Design Effect Adjustment Protocol
Larsen [46] Cross sectional 46 (18) GLM with RVE (Binomial) Yes Yes: Details not clear Results
Li [162] Cross sectional 104 (4) GEE (Binomial) Yes Yes: Cluster Design Effect Adjustment Protocol
Liddy [163] Cohort 83 (3) GLMM (Normal) Yes Yes: Cluster Design Effect Adjustment Protocol
Lilly [87] Cross sectional 7 (7) GLMM (Binomial and Normal) Yes Yes: No Clustering adjustment Results
Maheu-Giroux [164] Cross sectional 6 (3) GLMM (Binomial) Yes No Results
Marrin [165] Cross sectional 6 (3) GLMM (Normal) No Yes: Cluster Design Effect Adjustment Protocol
Marshall [166] Cross sectional 32 (10) GEE (Binomial) Yes Yes: Cluster Design Effect Adjustment Protocol
Mhurchu [167]
Mhurchu [168]
Cohort 14 (4) GLMM (Binomial and Normal) Yes Yes: Hussey/Hughes method Results
Mosha [72] Cross sectional 10 (10) GLM (Binomial) No No Results
Mouchoux [62] Cross sectional 3 (3) GLM fixed effect for cluster (Binomial) Yes Yes: Hussey/Hughes method Protocol
Muntinga [169] Cohort 35 (4) GLMM (Normal) Yes Yes: Cluster Design Effect Adjustment Protocol
Ononge [75] Cross sectional 6 (Unclear) GLM (Normal and Binomial) No No Results
Palmay [170] Cross sectional 6 (6) GLMM (Negative binomial) Yes No Results
Palmer [83] Cohort 11 (3) GLMM (Normal) Yes Yes: Simulated Protocol
Pearse [52] Cross sectional 90 (15) GLMM (Binomial)/Cox PH (Time to Event) Yes Yes: Hussey/Hughes method Protocol
Pickering [171] Cohort 4 (4) GLMM (Normal) Yes Yes: Details not clear Results
Poldervaart [172] Cross sectional 10 (10) GLMM (Binomial) No Yes: Cluster Design Effect Adjustment Protocol
Priestley [88] Cross sectional 16 (7) GLMM (Binomial) Unknown Yes: No Clustering adjustment Results
Proeschold-Bell [79] Cohort 3 (3) Unknown Unknown No Protocol
Rasmussen [173] Cohort 21 (4) GLMM (Normal) No Yes: Woertman method Results
Reuther [174] Cohort 12 (5) GLMM (Binomial) Yes Yes: Hussey/Hughes method Protocol
Roy [175] Cross sectional 27 (5) GLMM (Binomial) No Yes: Cluster Design Effect Adjustment Results
Schnelle [60] Cohort 2 (2) Repeated Measures ANOVA (Normal) Yes Unknown Results
Skrovseth [57] Cohort 2 (2) GLM (Normal)/Wilcoxon Rank sum (Non parametric) No Yes: Details not clear Results
Solomon [176]
Solomon [177]
Cross sectional 128 (4) GLMM/GEE (Normal/Binomial) Yes Yes: Hussey/Hughes method Results
Stern [84] Cohort 12 (11) GLMM (Normal) Yes Yes: Simulated Results
Strijbos [89] Cross sectional 8 (4) GLMM (Binomial) No Yes: No Clustering adjustment Protocol
Suman [178] Cohort 4 (4) GLMM (Binomial) No Yes: Cluster Design Effect Adjustment Protocol
Tielsch [85] Cohort 12 (12) GLMM (Normal and Binomial) Yes Yes: Simulated Protocol
Tiono [179] Cohort (Cross sectional subgroup) 40 (8) GLMM (Binomial) Yes Yes: Cluster Design Effect Adjustment Protocol
Tirlea [180]
Tirlea [181]
Cohort 12 (3) GLMM (Normal) Yes Yes: Cluster Design Effect Adjustment Results
Toftegaard [182] Cohort (GP level) Cross Sectional (patient level) 8 (8) GLMM (Binomial) No Yes: Woertman method Protocol
Viera [56] Cohort 3 (2) McNemar’s test (Binomial) No Retrospectively: No clustering adjustment Results
Ward [183] Cross sectional 24 (3) GLMM/GEE (Binomial) No Yes: Cluster Design Effect Adjustment Protocol
Weiner [69] Cross sectional 36 (36) GLM fixed effect for cluster (Binomial) No No Results
Williams [184] Cohort 12 (3) GLMM (Normal) Yes Yes: Hussey/Hughes method Protocol
Williamson [70] Cohort 6 (3) GLM fixed effect for cluster (Binomial and Normal) Yes Yes: Hussey/Hughes method Protocol
Wilrycx [185] Cohort 2 (2) GLMM (Normal) Unknown No Results
Zwijsen [186]
Zwijsen [187]
Zwijsen [188]
Zwijsen [189]
Cohort 17 (5) GLMM (Binomial) No Yes: Hussey/Hughes method Results
van Daalen [86] Cross sectional 9 (4) GLMM/GEE (Normal/Binomial) No Yes: Simulated Protocol
van de Steeg [190]
van de Steeg [191]
Cross sectional 18 (10) GLMM (Binomial) Yes Yes: Cluster Design Effect Adjustment Results
van den Broek [63]
van den Broek [64]
Cross sectional 190 (3) GLM fixed effect for cluster (Binomial) No Yes: Simulated Results
van Holland [192] Cohort 5 (5) GLMM (Normal and Binomial) Yes Yes: Hussey/Hughes method Protocol