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Table 3 Time from completion to publication: multivariable Cox regression analyses

From: Time to publication among completed diagnostic accuracy studies: associated with reported accuracy estimates

  Hazard ratio (95 % CI)a p-value
Model 1: Sensitivity (n = 464)   
Sensitivity (logit transformed) 1.06 (1.02–1.11) 0.007
Year of publication (per 5 years) 0.98 (0.88–1.08) 0.660
Journal impact factor   
  ≥4 1.24 (0.99–1.55) 0.064
  <4 or not available 1  
Number of authors 0.99 (0.96–1.02) 0.550
Continent of first author   
  Europe, North America or Oceania 0.69 (0.55–0.87) 0.002
  Africa, Asia or South America 1  
Type of test   
  Imaging 1.15 (0.88–1.50) 0.300
  Other 1  
Type of data collection   
  Prospective 1.19 (0.96–1.48) 0.120
  Retrospective or not reported 1  
Study duration (per year)b 1.00 (0.98–1.03) 0.820
Number of participants (per 1000) 1.01 (0.99–1.03) 0.430
Model 2: Specificity (n = 458)   
Specificity (logit transformed) 1.09 (1.04–1.14) <0.001
Year of publication (per 5 years) 1.01 (0.91–1.11) 0.910
Journal impact factor   
  ≥4 1.34 (1.07–1.67) 0.011
  <4 or not available 1  
Number of authors 0.99 (0.96–1.02) 0.360
Continent of first author   
  Europe, North America or Oceania 0.72 (0.57–0.90) 0.003
  Africa, Asia or South America 1  
Type of test   
  Imaging 1.15 (0.90–1.46) 0.260
  Other 1  
Type of data collection   
  Prospective 1.23 (1.00–1.52) 0.050
  Retrospective or not reported 1  
Study duration (per year)b 1.00 (0.98–1.02) 0.980
Number of participants (per 1000) 1.01 (0.99–1.03) 0.540
Model 3: Youden’s index (n = 454)   
Youden’s index (logit transformed)g 1.09 (1.03–1.14) 0.001
Year of publication (per 5 years) 0.98 (0.89–1.09) 0.730
Journal impact factor   
  ≥4 1.28 (1.02–1.61) 0.031
  <4 or not available 1  
Number of authors 0.98 (0.95–1.01) 0.280
Continent of first author   
  Europe, North America or Oceania 0.69 (0.55–0.87) 0.002
  Africa, Asia or South America 1  
Type of test   
  Imaging 1.16 (0.90–1.51) 0.250
  Other 1  
Type of data collection   
  Prospective 1.24 (1.00–1.54) 0.052
  Retrospective or not reported 1  
Study duration (per year)b 1.00 (0.98–1.02) 0.910
Number of participants (per 1000) 1.01 (0.99–1.03) 0.460
  1. aFrailty term added per meta-analysis to account for systematic differences in time from completion to publication between meta-analyses; variance of frailty terms was: model 1 = 0.103; model 2 = 0.064; model 3 = 0.094
  2. bOne study was excluded from the Cox regression analysis because of a missing study duration