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Table 3 Code-based studies of sepsis and severe sepsis incidence in the general population

From: Differences in reported sepsis incidence according to study design: a literature review

  CDC, 1990 [57] Angus, 2001 [14] Martin, 2003 [63] Flaatten, 2004 [21] Dombrovskiy, 2005 [60] Esper, 2006 [61] Dombrovskiy, 2007 [59] Shen, 2010 [56] Wilhelms, 2010 [22] Kumar, 2011 [62] Lagu, 2012 [16] Chen, 2013 [58]
Country/Region USA USA (7 states) USA Norway New Jersey, USA USA USA Taiwan Sweden USA USA Taiwan
Coding system ICD-9 ICD-9 ICD-9 ICD-10 ICD-9 ICD-9 ICD-9 ICD-9 ICD-9/10vi ICD-9 ICD9 ICD9
Data source NHDS Constructed database NHDS NPR New Jersey SID NHDS NIS NHIRD SHDR NIS NIS NHIRD
Study population NA 6,621,559 NA 700,107 7,364,550 NA NA 201,657iv 200,000v 2,024,793 NA NA NA
Number of cases (sepsis/severe sepsis) NA NA/192,980 NA 6665/NA 24,765 - 30,081/8096 - 13,453 NA NA NA/7531iv NA/5258v NA/37,990vii NA/27,655vii NA/12,512vii NA NA NA/40,856 - 116,749
Exclusion criteria <1 year    Neonate sepsis <18 years    Previous episode of severe sepsis Neonate sepsis, previous episode of severe sepsis <18 years <18 years  
Internal validation No Yes Yes No No (Yes)ii No Yes No No No No
Calendar year 1979; 1987 1995 1979; 2000 1999 1995–2002 1979; 2003 1993–2003 1997; 2006 1987; 2005 2000; 2007 2007 1997-2008
Sepsis incidence 100.000 person yrs−1 74; 176 83; 240i 149 83; 275i -
Severe sepsis incidence 100.000 person yrs−1 300 135–208 65–135 153; 359iii,iv 135; 217iii,v 10; 35vii 25; 43vii 3; 13vii 143; 343 1074viii 303viii 188 - 507
  1. Characteristics of code based studies of sepsis and severe sepsis incidence extrapolated to the general population. i) Age-standardized to fit the population distribution in the 2000 U.S. consensus. ii) Method validated by Martin et al. iii) Age-standardized using 2000 world population reported by WHO as standard. iv) No exclusion criteria. v) Exclusion criteria as stated. vi) Discharge diagnoses were classified according to ICD-9 until the end of 1996. These were translated into ICD-10 for the methods of Angus et al. and Martin et al. vii) Using the method proposed in Angus et al., Flaaten et al. (time of incidence measure: 1997; 2005) and Martin et al., respectively. viii) Using the method proposed in Angus et al. and Dombrovskiy et al., respectively. Abbreviations: −, not calculated; SHDR Swedish hospital discharge register, NA not available, NHDS national hospital discharge survey (USA), NHIRD national health insurance research (Taiwan), NIS nationwide inpatient sample (USA), NPR Norwegian patient register; yrs, years