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Table 2 Some sex and gender research questions for researchers studying implementation

From: Why sex and gender matter in implementation research

• Are theories of behaviour change (i.e. processes of reasoning or reflection) equally applicable across sexes, genders and other intersecting variables?
• How does consideration of sex, gender and diversity affect the assessing of barriers and supports to uptake of evidence-informed practice, programs, policies?
• How do prevailing gender norms or gender roles serve as barriers or enablers to the uptake of evidence-informed practices, programs, policies?
• When and how should implementation interventions be tailored to the sex, gender and diversity of the target audience?
• Do cognitive and emotional learning strategies differ across sexes or genders, and if so how?
• When and how should the wording or messaging included in the implementation intervention be tailored differently across sex, gender and other identity characteristics?
• How does the implementation intervention increase or decrease gender inequities in socio-economic status, cultural or ethnic groups, and political contexts?
• Does the implementation intervention work differently for sub-groups of men, women and gender-diverse people, and if so, how?
• When using participatory/collaborative or integrated knowledge translation research approaches, does the sex and gender of the researchers and knowledge users matter, and if so, how?
• How do gender relations as a function of dyads or interpersonal dynamics within an organization, community, workplace or institution influence the outcome of the intervention?
• Are there unintended impacts of implementation that exacerbate or diminish sex, gender or other diversity-related inequities?