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Table 3 Additional details of the studies included in this review (n = 20)

From: A systematic review of studies with a representative sample of refugees and asylum seekers living in the community for participation in mental health research

Author(s)

Community representative sample*

RAS

Sampling method(s)

Sampling techniques

Sampling considerations

a priori aim

Used registry/census data

Multiple non-probability methods

Probability (random) component

Network-based

In sampling/recruitment

In assessing representativeness

Snowballing

RDS

Online

Fenta et al. 2006 [32]

high

Y

Random sampling from created frame

Lists from Ethiopian organizations, telephone directory

Silove et al. 2007 [39]

high

Y

Probabilistic sampling from created frame (house-to-house screening)

De Maio et al. 2014 [30] G

high

Y

All eligible refugees listed in government settlement database were invited

All in sample frame invited to participate

McAuliffe 2013 [37] G-Report

high

Y

Sample frame of eligible refugees listed in government settlement database. Quota sampling also used

Commissariat for Refugees 2008 [29] G-Report

med/high

Y

Multistage stratified sampling

Unclear

Municipality registries

Citizenship and Immigration Canada 2011 [28] G-Report

med/high

Y

Random sampling from created frame

Government database

Cochran et al. 2013G/Ao (2016) [23]*

med/high

Y

State-based stratification with random sampling from created frame. Supplementary purposive and probability proportional to size sampling

Maximova & Krahn 2010 [36] G

med/high

Y

Systematic sampling (every nth name) from sampling frame

Systematic every nth name in database

Government settlement database

Gerritsen et al. 2006 [33]

med/high

Y

Random samples of refugees were obtained from population registries, plus asylum seekers living in randomly selected reception centres

Spring et al. 2003 [40]

med/high

Y

Multiple purposive sampling methods: Targeted, convenience, snowball sampling

School enrolments, birth statistics, state resettlement records

Bhui et al. 2006 [24]

medium

Y

Community based sampling (convenience) & primary care registry lists (random)

Bilsborrow et al. 2011 [25]

medium

Y

Oversampling (probability sampling) first with supplementary snowball sampling

Blight et al. 2006 [26]

medium

Y

Random sample drawn from a large registry of community living target group

Heeren et al. 2012 [34]

medium

Y

National register of adult asylum seekers (sampled consecutively)

Khavarpour & Rissel 1997 [35]

medium

Y

Snowball sampling with strategies to access diverse social networks

Qiu et al. 2012 [38]

medium

N

Respondent driven sampling

Gender ratio

Vial et al. 2014 [18]

medium

N

Field (convenience) and online sampling

Wylie & Jolly 2013 [19]

medium

N

Respondent driven sampling

Bogic et al. 2012 [27] G

medium

Y

Multiple random and non-random sampling: resident registers, snowballing, community-based sampling

Dunlavy 2001 [31] G-Thesis

medium

Y

Non-probability stratified quota sampling, community-based snowballing with multiple starting points

  1. RAS = refugee and/or asylum seeker participants. Non-peer-reviewed publications are emphasize in bold in table
  2. G Identified in grey literature search. G-Report Government reports identified in grey literature search. G-Thesis Dissertations identified in grey literature search