Regression adjustment

Logistic regression, adjusted for gender

0.647 [0.570, 0.734] (odds ratio)

0.679 [0.550, 0.839] (odds ratio)

0.953 [0.745, 1.218] (odds ratio)

Propensity score matching

Matched on gender

−0.048 [0.065, 0.031] (probability difference)

−0.020 [0.031, 0.009] (probability difference)

Not applicable

Differenceindifferences

Logistic regression

0.666 [0.574, 0.773] (odds ratio)

0.687 [0.530, 0.890] (odds ratio)

0.970 [0.719, 1.307] (odds ratio)

Fixed effects

Linear regression, adjusted for time

−0.044 [0.051, 0.037] (probability difference)

−0.016 [0.023, 0.009] (probability difference)

−0.029 [0.039, 0.019] (probability difference)

Instrumental variable

Probit regression

−0.050 [0.063, 0.037] (probability difference)

−0.020 [0.029, 0.011] (probability difference)

−0.036 [0.057, 0.015] (probability difference)

Regression discontinuity

Logistic regression around the income threshold

0.678 [0.495, 0.929] (odds ratio)

0.687 [0.483, 0.977] (odds ratio)

0.987 [0.615, 1.583] (odds ratio)

Interrupted timeseries

Linear regression

−0.023 [0.027,0.020] (probability difference)

−0.005 [0.008, 0.002] (probability difference)

−0.019 [0.023, 0.014] (probability difference)
