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Table 4 Test-retest reliability of the ABC measure

From: Measurement properties of the Danish version of the Awareness and Beliefs about Cancer (ABC) measure

  N Agreement (%) Expected agreement (%) Kappa ICC (95% CI)
Anticipated patient interval for healthcare seeking
Response options: I would go as soon as I noticed; up to 1 week; over 1 up to 2 weeks; over 2 up to 3 weeks; over 3 up to 4 weeks; more than a month; I would go to another healthcare professional; I would not contact my doctor.
 Q5. A persistent cough 119 95.6 87.3 0.65  
 Q6. Rectal bleeding 120 98.5 92.7 0.80  
 Q7. Any breast changesb 75 95.4 92.0 0.43  
 Q8. Abdominal bloating 115 94.2 80.4 0.70  
Awareness of cancer symptoms
Response options: yes and no.
 Q9. Unexplained lump or swelling 122 90.2 87.7 0.20  
 Q10. Persistent unexplained pain 116 77.6 62.3 0.41  
 Q11. Unexplained bleeding 116 88.8 78.1 0.49  
 Q12. Persistent cough or hoarseness 119 84.9 63.9 0.58  
 Q13. Change in bowel or bladder habits 118 88.1 68.6 0.62  
 Q14. Persistent difficulty in swallowing 117 90.6 67.9 0.71  
 Q15. Change in the appearance of a mole 123 98.4 98.4 −0.01  
 Q16. Sore that does not heal 107 82.2 65.4 0.49  
 Q17. Unexplained night sweats 100 81.0 63.4 0.48  
 Q18. Unexplained weight loss 119 95.0 84.6 0.67  
 Q19. Unexplained tiredness 115 86.1 65.0 0.60  
 The total score of cancer symptom awareness 123 - - - 0.80 (0.72–0.86)
Anticipated barriers for healthcare seeking
Response options: yes, often; yes, sometimes; no.
 Q24. I would be too embarrassed 123 98.0 92.6 0.72  
 Q25. I would be worried about wasting the doctor’s time 123 98.0 91.0 0.77  
 Q26. I would be worried about what the doctor might find 123 95.9 88.0 0.66  
 Q27. I am too busy to make time to go to the doctor 123 96.3 87.7 0.70  
Beliefs about cancer
Response options: strongly disagree; tend to disagree; tend to agree; strongly agree.
 Q28. People with cancer can expect to continue with normal activities 119 93.2 88.2 0.42  
 Q29. Most cancer treatment is worse than the cancer itself 103 93.3 81.0 0.65  
 Q30. Not want to know if I have cancer 122 96.7 94.3 0.43  
 Q31. Cancer can often be cured 123 94.2 90.9 0.37  
 Q32. Going to the doctor as quickly as possible could increase the chances of surviving 122 95.7 93.2 0.37  
 Q33. A diagnosis of cancer is a death sentence 122 91.3 84.5 0.44  
Awareness of 5-year survival from cancer
Response options: 0; 1; 2; 3; 4; 5; 6; 7; 8; 9; 10.
 Q34. Out of 10 people diagnosed with bowel cancer, how many do you think would be alive 5 years later? 112 96.2 93.5 0.42  
 Q35. Out of 10 people diagnosed with breast cancer, how many do you think would be alive 5 years later? 120 96.7 91.7 0.60  
 Q36. Out of 10 people diagnosed with ovarian cancer, how many do you think would be alive 5 years later? 109 97.5 90.2 0.74  
 Q37. Out of 10 people diagnosed with lung cancer, how many do you think would be alive 5 years later? 120 97.8 92.7 0.70  
Breast cancer screening behaviourb
Response options: yes; no.
 QM1. Breast cancer screening behavior 38 97.4 75.2 0.89  
Bowel cancer screening behaviourc
Response options: yes; no.
 QM2. Bowel cancer screening behavior 68 100 83.9 1  
Beliefs about breast cancer screeninga
Response options: strongly disagree; tend to disagree; tend to agree; strongly agree.
 QM3. So worried about what might be found at breast cancer screening, that I would prefer not to do it 75 98.4 95.2 0.66  
 QM4. Breast cancer screening is only necessary if I have symptoms 75 92.4 78.0 0.66  
 QM5. Breast cancer screening could reduce my chances of dying from breast cancer 74 96.7 87.9 0.73  
Beliefs about bowel cancer screening
Response options: strongly disagree; tend to disagree; tend to agree; strongly agree.
 QM6. So worried about what might be found at bowel cancer screening, that I would prefer not to do it 121 97.0 95.1 0.38  
 QM7. Bowel cancer screening is only necessary if I have symptoms 116 87.9 70.8 0.59  
 QM8. Bowel cancer screening could reduce my chances of dying from bowel cancer 115 92.8 88.6 0.36  
Awareness of growing risk of cancer with age
Response options: 30 year olds; 50 year olds; 70 year olds; people of any age are equally likely to be diagnosed with cancer.
 Q38. Growing risk of cancer with age 123 96.5 83.5 0.79  
Awareness of risk factors for cancer
Response options: strongly disagree; tend to disagree; tend to agree; strongly agree.
 QN1. Smoking 123 98.0 94.8 0.62  
 QN2. Exposure to passive smoking 122 97.5 89.5 0.76  
 QN3. Drinking more than 1 unit of alcohol a day 118 90.9 81.6 0.50  
 QN4. Eating less than 5 portions of fruit and vegetables a day 117 90.1 80.1 0.55  
 QN5. Eating red or processed meat once a day or more 109 91.0 80.5 0.54  
 QN6. Being obese 117 93.1 81.1 0.63  
 QN7. Getting sunburnt more than once as a child 120 92.5 79.0 0.64  
 QN8. Being over 70 years old 121 90.4 77.3 0.57  
 QN9. Having a close relative with cancer 119 92.1 82.0 0.56  
 QN10. Infection with HPV, Human Papillomavirus 37 95.2 87.3 0.62  
 QN11. Not doing much physical activity 120 93.8 83.7 0.62  
 QN12. Using a solarium 122 97.5 94.3 0.57  
 QN13. Exposure to ionising radiation from, for example, radioactive materials, x-rays or radon 119 95.7 91.6 0.49  
 The total score of cancer symptom awareness 121 - - - 0.75 (0.67–0.82)
Self or someone close with cancer
Response options: yes, respondent; yes, someone close; yes, both self and someone close; yes, but would prefer not to say who; no.
 Q3. Self or someone close with cancer 123 93.5 58.4 0.84  
Self-rated health
Response options: very good; good; fair; poor; very poor.
 Q20. Self-rated health 123 97.8 92.2 0.71  
Access to a doctor
Response options: very difficult; somewhat difficult; somewhat easy; very easy.
 Q21. Access to a doctor 122 97.7 92.4 0.70  
Smoking behavior
Response options: yes; no.
 Q22. Current smoker 123 100 73.9 1.00  
 Q23. Former smoker 104 94.2 50.0 0.88  
  1. aWeighted kappa computed for women only
  2. bKappa computed for women ≥ 50 years old
  3. cKappa computed for men and women ≥ 50 years old