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Table 4 Cross-Tabulation of Veterans’ Affective Changes Post-survey

From: Changes in affect after completing a mailed survey about trauma: two pre- and post-test studies in former disability applicants for posttraumatic stress disorder

  Sample
GWESt IMPROVe
Men Men Women
N = 191 N = 639 N = 921
Valence (Sadness/Happiness) Arousal (Tenseness/Calmness) Arousal (Tenseness/Calmness) Arousal (Tenseness/Calmness)
  Calmer No change Tenser Total Calmer No change Tenser Total Calmer No Change Tenser Total
Happier 19 13 11 43 43 37 28 108 55 35 28 118
No Change 20 53 19 92 52 215 65 332 58 260 100 418
Sadder 7 12 37 56 33 56 110 199 46 97 242 385
Total 46 78 67 191 128 308 203 639 159 392 370 921
  1. GWESt Gulf War I Era study, IMPROVe Interviews to Measure PTSD Recovery of Seterans study
  2. Bold face font represents row and column totals
  3. Results Reported as Ns