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Table 1 Estimated Empirical type I error of Cox regression, Time-dependent Cox regression and Landmark methods on simulated data under the null hypothesis that aspirin is not significantly related to cancer

From: Statistical methods for elimination of guarantee-time bias in cohort studies: a simulation study

β 0 Cumulative dose Cox regression Time-dependent
Cox regression
Landmark analyses
τ = 5 τ = 7
log(0.015) Low 214 58 56 57
Moderate 1000 52 42 45
High 1000 43 55 47
log(50.015) Low 723 47 56 66
Moderate 1000 50 40 44
High 1000 47 46 46
log(100.015) Low 957 52 62 52
Moderate 1000 59 50 48
High 1000 46 46 44
  1. Each value represents the number of cases out of 1000 replications for which the null hypothesis is incorrectly rejected
  2. Two values of landmark time (τ) are used, 5 and 7. β 0 values represent disease incidence rate
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