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Table 3 Bias in Scenarios with X 1 and X 2 Continuous, Coordinated Missing Data Mechanism and Outcome Prevalence = 0.30

From: Multiple imputation for handling missing outcome data when estimating the relative risk

Simulation scenario Parameter MVNI MVNI + deletion FCS FCS + deletion
1. Corr(X 1, X 2) = 0.70,  β 1 = β 2 = log(3), λ = 2 β 1 −0.26 0.01 −0.09 0.02
β 2 −0.27 −0.11 −0.24 −0.12
2. As in (1.), but with Corr(X 1, X 2) = 0 β 1 −0.27 −0.05 −0.15 −0.05
β 2 −0.21 −0.06 −0.16 −0.06
3. As in (1.), but with  β 1 = 0 β 1 −0.04 0.02 0.01 0.02
  β 2 −0.17 −0.03 −0.10 −0.03
4. As in (1.), but with  β 2 = 0 β 1 −0.24 0.00 −0.10 0.00
  β 2 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00
5. As in (1.), but with  β 1 = β 2 = 0 β 1 −0.01 −0.01 −0.01 −0.01
  β 2 0.01 0.01 0.01 0.01
6. As in (1.), but with  λ = 0 (MCAR) β 1 −0.11 0.00 0.00 0.00
  β 2 −0.17 −0.08 −0.08 −0.08
  1. Abbreviations: Corr correlation, MCAR missing completely at random, MVNI multivariate normal imputation, FCS fully conditional specification