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Table 1 A comparison of type of consent obtained and the country where the research took place. (N = number of trials. Note some trials used more than one type of consent)

From: Assessment of consent models as an ethical consideration in the conduct of prehospital ambulance randomised controlled clinical trials: a systematic review

Type of Consent Multicentre (N = 12) UK (N = 12) Australia (N = 12) USA (N = 4) Canada (N = 4) Germany (N = 4) France (N = 2) Sweden (N = 2) Austria (N = 1) New Zealand (N = 1) Finland (N = 1) Norway (N = 1) Total
Waived Consent 4 3 6 3 3 1 1 1 22
Informed Consent 7 2 2 1 3 1 2 1 19
Relative Proxy 1 4 1 1 2 1 1 11
Delayed Consent 1 1 3 2 1 1 9
Consent for Follow Up 1 2 1 1 5
Verbal Consent 2 1 1 4
Paramedic Proxy 2 2
Retrospective Consent 1 1 2
Paramedic Consented 1 1
Opt Out 1 1