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Table 2 Comparison of type of consent with the condition being studied (N = number of trials. Note some trials used more than one type of consent)

From: Assessment of consent models as an ethical consideration in the conduct of prehospital ambulance randomised controlled clinical trials: a systematic review

Type of Consent Cardiac Arrest
(N = 19)
STEMI
(N = 9)
Stroke
(N = 7)
Airways Issues
(N = 3)
Pain
(N = 3)
Other Heart Conditions
(N = 2)
Low Risk Injury
(N = 2)
Fractures
(N = 2)
Falls
(N = 2)
Pelvic Pain
(N = 1)
Hypovolaemic Shock
(N = 1)
Head Injury
(N = 1)
Sedation(N = 1) Hypoglycaemia
(N = 1)
Motion Sickness
(N = 1)
Elderly Patients
(N = 1)
Total
Waived Consent 13 1 2 1 2 1 1 1 22
Informed Consent 7 5 1 1 2 1 1 1 19
Delayed Consent 4 2 1 1 8
Relative Proxy 3 1 4 1 1 1 11
Paramedic Proxy 2 2
Consent for Follow Up 5 3 1 1 10
Verbal Consent 2 1 1 1 5
Retrospective Consent 1 1 2
Paramedic Consented 1 1
Opt Out 1 1