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Table 3 Comparison of type of consent with the type of intervention being studied. (N = number of trials. Note some trials used more than one type of consent)

From: Assessment of consent models as an ethical consideration in the conduct of prehospital ambulance randomised controlled clinical trials: a systematic review

Type Of Consent Drug V Placebo (N = 24) Alternative Pathway V Normal Care (N = 10) Alternative Process V Normal Care (N = 10) Device Trial V Placebo or Normal Care (N = 12) Total
Waived Consent 8 2 3 9 22
Informed Consent 11 6 1 1 19
Delayed Consent 2 1 4 1 8
Relative Proxy 4 2 3 2 11
Paramedic Proxy 2 2
Consent For Follow Up 6 1 3 10
Verbal Consent 5 5
Retrospective Consent 2 2
Paramedic Consented 1 1
Opt Out 1 1