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Table 2 Study characteristics and recommendations by key item

From: Methods to systematically review and meta-analyse observational studies: a systematic scoping review of recommendations

Authors, year Study designs targeteda Protocol Research Question Search Eligibility Extraction Study Designs Risk of Bias  Publication Bias Heterogeneity Statistics
Abrams, 1995 [102] Cohort and case-control
Armstrong, 2007 [39] Observational
Ashford, 2009 [36] Observational
Austin, 1997 [76] Cohort and case-control
Balshem, 2011 [84] Observational
Blair, 1995 [34] Observational
Brockwell, 2001 [116] Not specified
Chaiyakunapruk, 2014 [54] Cohort and case-control
Chambers, 2009 [32] Case series
Colditz, 1995 [77] Cohort and case-control
Davey Smith, 1997 [98] Observational
Davey Smith, 1998 [96] Observational
Doria, 2005 [103] Observational and RCT
Dwyer, 2001 [101] Cohort and case-control
Egger, 1997a [29] Observational
Egger, 1997b [97] Observational
Fraser, 2006 [58] Observational
Friedenreich, 1994 [31] Case-control
Furlan, 2006 [59] Observational
Golder, 2008 [60] Observational
Greenland, 1994 [85] Cohort and case-control
Guyatt, 2011a [95] Observational
Guyatt, 2011b [45] Observational
Guyatt, 2011c [93] Observational
Guyatt, 2011d [106] Observational
Hartemink, 2006 [109] Observational
Haynes, 2005 [57] Cohort
Herbison, 2006 [92] Observational
Hernandez, 2016 [107] Cohort, case-control and cross- sectional
Higgins, 2013 [65] Observational
Horton, 2010 [74] Cross-sectional
Ioannidis, 2011 [88] Observational
Khoshdel, 2006 [30] Observational and RCT
Kuper, 2006 [62] Observational
Lau, 1997 [16] Observational
Lemeshow, 2005 [63] Observational
Loke, 2011 [64] Observational and RCT
Loke, 2007 [35] Cohort, case-control and cross- sectional
MacDonald-Jankowski, 2001 [46] Observational and RCT
Mahid, 2006 [55] Observational and RCT
Manchikanti, 2009 [47] Observational
Martin, 2000 [79] Cohort and case-control
McCarron, 2010 [114] Observational and RCT
Moola, 2015 [41] Observational and RCT
Moreno, 1996 [80] Case-control
Munn, 2015 [72] Observational
Naumann, 2007 [67] Not specified
Normand, 1999 [48] Observational and RCT
Norris, 2013 [71] Observational and RCT
O’Connor, 2014 [42] Observational
Pladevall-Vila, 1996 [100] Observational
Prevost, 2000 [117] Observational
Price, 2004 [49] Observational
Raman, 2012 [50] Observational and RCT
Ravani, 2015 [43] Observational
Robertson, 2014 [94] Observational and RCT
Rosenthal, 2001 [51] Observational and RCT
Sagoo, 2009 [33] Observational
Salanti, 2005 [87] Observational
Salanti, 2009 [110] Observational
Sanderson, 2007 [90] Observational
Schünemann, 2013 [40] Observational
Shamliyan, 2012 [89] Observational and RCT
Shuster, 2007 [118] Observational
Simunovic, 2009 [38] Observational and case-control
Smith, 1995 [111] Observational
Souverein, 2012 [81] Observational and RCT
Stansfield, 2016 [68] Not specified
Sterne, 2016 [82] Observational
Stroup, 2000 [12] Observational
Sutton, 2002a [78] Observational and RCT
Sutton, 2002b [99] Observational and RCT
Tak, 2010 [52] Cohort and case-control
Takkouche, 1999 [104] Observational
Thomas, 2004 [53] Observational
Thompson, 2002 [115] Observational
Thompson, 2011 [112] Observational
Thompson, 2014 [69] Observational
Thornton, 2000 [61] Observational
Tufanaru, 2015 [44] Observational
Tweedie, 1995 [113] Cohort and case-control
Valentine, 2013 [75] Observational and RCT
Verde, 2015 [83] Observational and RCT
Weeks, 2007 [108] Cohort and case-control
Wells, 2013 [37] Observational and RCT
West, 2002 [91] Cohort and case-control
Wille-Jorgensen, 2008 [56] Observational and RCT
Winegardner, 2007 [66] Observational, Cohort and case-control
Wong, 2008 [86] Observational
Wong, 1996 [70] Cohort
Zeegers, 2000 [105] Observational
Zingg, 2016 [73] Observational and cohort
Zwahlen, 2008 [8] Observational
  1. aDescribes the study designs toward which articles target their recommendations. Articles that target “observational” or “non-randomised” studies are categorised under observational. “Not specified” refers to articles that do not name study designs, but provide recommendations applicable to observational studies