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Table 1 Summary characteristics of included models evaluating DAAs

From: Cost-effectiveness of diagnostic and therapeutic interventions for chronic hepatitis C: a systematic review of model-based analyses

First author Year Country Model Type HCV population Regimens evaluateda Perspective Time horizon Discount rate Cycle length Sponsor Included in analysis, Y/N
Athanasakis
2015
Greece
Markov Tx naïve & Tx experienced, G1 TT (BOC-PEG-RBV), DT (PEG-RBV) 3rd party payer Lifetime
3%a
1 wk
Merck Sharp & Dohme Corp. N
Blazquez-Perez
2013
Spain
Markov Tx naïve, G1 TT (BOC-PEG-RBV, TEL-PEG-RBV), DT (PEG-RBV) Spanish NHS Lifetime
3%
3 mthsa
Unsupportedb N
Brogan
2014
USA
Markov Tx naïve & Tx experienced, G1 TT (TEL-PEG-RBV), DT (PEG-RBV) US payer perspective Lifetime
3%a
1 yr
Vertex Pharmaceuticals Incorporated N
Camma
2013
Italy
Semi Markov Tx experienced, G1, Aged 50+ TT (BOC/TEL-PEG-RBV), No Tx Italian NHS Lifetime
3%a
1 yr
3P Solution N
Camma
2012
Italy
Semi Markov Tx naïve, G1, Aged 50+ TT (BOC/TEL-PEG-RBV), DT (PEG-RBV) Italian NHSc 20-yr
3%a
1 yr
3P Solution N
Chan
2013
USA
Markov Tx naïve, G1 TT (BOC-PEG-RBV, TEL-PEG-RBV), DT (PEG-RBV), No Tx VHA Healthcare Organization Lifetime
3%a
1 yr
Dept. Of Veteran Affairs Health Services Research and DQERI N
Chhatwal
2015
USA
Markov (Individual) Tx naïve & Tx experienced, G1–4 TT (SOF-PEG-RBV, BOC-PEG-RBV, TEL-PEG-RBV), DT (SOF-LDV, SOF-RBV, PEG-RBV) Third party payer Lifetime
3%a
1 wk
NIH (award #KL2TR000146) N
Chhatwal
2013
USA
Markov Tx experienced, G1 TT (BOC-PEG-RBV), DT (PEG-RBV) Payer Lifetime
3%a
1 wk
Merck Sharp & Dohme Corp. (in part) N
Cortesi
2015
USA
Semi Markov Tx naïve, G1 TT (BOC-PEG-RBV, TEL-PEG-RBV) Italian NHS Lifetime
3%a
1 yr
Unsupported N
Cure
2015a
Italy
Markov Tx naïve & Tx experienced, G1–6 DT (PEG-RBV, SOF-RBV), TT (SOF-PEG-RBV, TEL-PEG-RBV, BOC-PEG-RBV), No Tx Italian NHS Lifetime
3%a
3 mths & 1 yrd
Gilead Sciences Y
Cure
2015b
UK
Markov Tx naïve & Tx experienced, G1–6 TT (SOF-PEG-RBV, BOC-PEG-RBV, TEL-PEG-RBV), DT (SOF-RBV, PEG-RBV), No Tx UK NHS perspective Lifetime
3.5%a
3 mths & 1 yrd
Gilead Sciences Y
Cure
2014a
UK
Markov Tx naïve, G1 TT (BOC-PEG-RBV, TEL-PEG-RBV) UK NHS Lifetime
3.5%a
1 yr
Janssen Pharmaceuticals N
Cure
2014b
UK
Markov Tx experienced, G1 TT (BOC-PEG-RBV, TEL-PEG-RBV) Italian NHS Lifetime
3.5%a
1 yr
Janssen Pharmaceuticals N
Dan
2015
Singapore
Markov Tx naïve & Tx experienced, G1 TT (BOC-PEG-RBV), DT (PEG-RBV) Public Lifetime
3%a
1 yr
Merck & Co Inc. & MSD Pharma (Singapore) Pte. Ltd. N
Elbasha
2013
Portugal
Markov Tx naïve & Tx experienced, G1 TT (BOC-PEG-RBV), DT (PEG-RBV) Portuguese NHS Lifetime 5%a
1 wk
Merck Sharp & Dohme Corp. N
Ferrante
2013
USA
Markov Tx naïve, G1 TT (BOC-PEG-RBV), DT (PEG-RBV) Payer Lifetime
3%a
1 wk
Schering Plough (part of Merck Sharp & Dohme Corp.) N
Gimeno-Ballester
2016
Spain
Markov Tx naïve, G1b DT (SMV, DCV), TT (BOC-PEG-RBV, TEL-PEG-RBV) Spanish NHS Lifetime
3%a
3 mths
Unsupported N
Hagan
2014
USA
Markov Tx naïve & Tx experienced DT (SOF-SMV, SOF-RBV) Societal Lifetime
3%a
1 yr
Grants from NIH and Department of Veterans Affairs N
Leleu
2015
France
Markov Tx naïve & Tx experienced, G1–4 TT (SOF-PEG-RBV, TEL-PEG-RBV), DT (PEG-RBV) French NHS Lifetime
2.5%a
3 mths, 1 yr
Gilead Sciences N [no usable data]
Linas
2015
USA
Monte Carlo Simulation Tx naïve & Tx experienced, G2–3 TT (SOF-PEG-RBV), DT (SOF-RBV, PEG-RBV), No Tx Payer Lifetime
3%a
1 mth
NIDA & NIAID Y
Linas
2014
USA
Monte Carlo Simulation HIV/HCV co-infected (Tx naïve, G1, non-cirrhotic) TT (TEL-PEG-RBV), DT (PEG-RBV), No Tx Health system Lifetime
3%a
1 mth
NIDA & NIAID N
Liu
2014
USA
Markov Tx naïve men, G1, Age 40+ TT (SOF-PEG-RV, BOC-PEG-RBV), DT (PEG-RBV), No Tx Societal Lifetime
3%a
3 mths
US Dept. for Veteran Affairs, NIA, and NIH Y
Liu
2012
USA
Markov Tx naïve, G1 TT (BOC/TEL-PEG-RBV), DT (PEG-RBV) Societal Lifetime
3%a
1 yr
Stanford Graduate Fellowship N
McEwan
2014
Japan
Markov Tx naïve & Tx experienced, G1b TT (TEL-PEG-RBV) DT (DCV-ASV, PEG-RBV), No Tx Japanese health system Lifetime
2%a
1 yr
Bristol-Myers Squibb N
Najafzadeh
2015
USA
Discrete Event Simulation Tx naïve, G1–3 TT (BOC-PEG-RBV, SOF-PEG-RBV, SOF-LED-RBV), DT (SOF-SIM, SOF-DCV, SOF-LED, SOF-RBV, PEG-RBV) Societal Lifetime
3%a
NA
CVS Health Y
Petta
2014a
Italy
Semi Markov Tx naïve, G1, Age 50+ TT (SOF-PEG-RBV, BOC-PEG-RBV, TEL-PEG-RBV) Italian National Health Service Lifetime
3%a
1 yr
3P Solution N
Petta
2014b
Italy
Semi Markov Tx naïve, G1, Age 50+ TT (BOC-PEG-RBV), DT (PEG-RBV) Italian National Health Service Lifetime
3%a
1 yr
Not reported N
Pfeil
2015
Switzerland
Markov Tx naïve & Tx experienced G1–4 TT (SOF-PEG-RBV, TEL-PEG-RBV, BOC-PEG-RBV), DT (PEG-RBV, SOF-RBV), No Tx Swiss NHS Lifetime
3%a
1 yr
Gilead Switzerland Y
Rein
2015
USA
Markov Tx naïve, G1–4 DT (PEG-RBV, SOF-RBV, SIM-SOF), TT (SOF-PEG-RBV), No Tx Healthcare Lifetime
3%a
1 yr
National Foundation for CDC & Prevention N
Saab
2014
USA
Markov Tx naïve, Tx experienced & Tx naïve with HIV coinfection TT (SOF-PEG-RBV, BOC-PEG-RBV, TEL-PEG-RBV, SIM-PEG-RBV), DT (PEG-RBV) 3rd party payer Lifetime
3%a
1 yr
Gilead Sciences Inc. Y
San Miguel
2014
Spain
Markov Tx naïve & Tx experienced, G1–3 TT (SOF-PEG-RBV, BOC-PEG-RBV, TEL-PEG-RBV), DT (PEG-RBV, SOF-RBV) Spanish NHS Lifetime
3%a
3 mths
Not reportede Y
Tice
2015
USA
Markov Tx naïve & Tx experienced, G1–3, Age 60+ TT (SOF-PEG-RBV, TEL-PEG-RBV, SMV-PEG-RBV, SOF-SMV-RBV), DT SOF-RBV), No Tx US 3rd party payer Lifetime
3%a
1 yr
ICER & CTAF N
Vellopoulou
2014
The Netherlands
Markov Tx naïve & Tx experienced, G1 TT (SOF-PEG-RBV, BOC.PEG-RBV), DT (PEG-RBV) Societal Lifetime
4% costs; 1% outcomes
1 yr
Janssen-Cilag B.V. N
Warren
2014
Australia
Markov Tx naïve & Tx experienced, G1 TT (TEL-PEG-RBV), DT (PEG-RBV)   Lifetime
5%a
1 yr
Janssen Australia Pty Ltd N
Westerhout
2015
UK
Markov Tx naïve & Tx experienced, G1, Age 50+ TT (SMV-PEG-RBV, TEL-PEG-RBV, BOC-PEG-RBV), DT (PEG-RBV) UK NHS Lifetime
3.5%a
1 yr
Janssen EMEA N
Younossi
2015
USA
Markov Tx naïve & Tx experienced, G1 DT (SOF-LDV, SOF-SMV, SOF-RBV), TT (SOF-PEG-RBV, SMV-PEG-RBV, BOC-PEG-RBV), No Tx US 3rd party payer Lifetime
3%a
1 yr
Gilead Sciences Inc. N
Zhang
2015
USA
Markov (patient) Tx naïve, G1–3 DT (PEG-RBV, SOF-RBV, LED-SOF, SIM-SOF), TT (SOF-PEG-RBV), ViekiraPak (OMB-PAR-RIT-DAS) Unclear Lifetime
3%a
1 yr
National Science Foundation (grant #IIP-1361509 & #DGE1255832) N
  1. Abbreviations: ASV asunaprevir, BOC bocepravir, BOC-PEG-RBV-48 fixed duration therapy for 48 weeks, CDC Center for disease control, Corp. Corporation, DAA(s) direct acting antiviral(s), DAS dasabuvir, DCV daclatasvir, Dept. department, DQERI development Quality Enhancement Research Initiative, DT dual therapy, FD fixed duration, G genotype, IL interleukin, Inc. incorporated, LDV ledipasvir, mth(s) month(s), N no, NHS National Health Service/system, NIA National Institute of aging, NIAID National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, NIH National Institutes of Health, NIDA National Institute on Drug Abuse, OMB ombitasavir, PAR paritaprevir, PEG pegylated interferon, RBV ribavarin, RGT response guided therapy, RIT ritonavir, RVR rapid virologic response, SMV simepravir, SOF sofosbuvir, TEL telaprevi[52]r, TT triple therapy, Tx treatment, UK United Kingdom, US(A) United States (of America), VHA veterans health association, wk(s) week(s), Y yes, yr(s) year(s)
  2. Notes: aCosts and health outcomes; bNo pharmaceutical company, government agency, or grant conducted as academic research; cUnclear but study perspective limited to direct medical costs (Euros); dThe cycle length was 3 mths for Yr 1 and 2 and yearly thereafter; eAssume unsupported no competing interests were reported but does not state explicitly. The cycle lengths were estimated using the data reported in each publication. A not applicable (NA) was added for studies without cycle length
  3. Sources: Intervention models included in analysis: Cure 2015a [28], Cure 2015b [29], Linas, 2015 [37], Liu 2014 [39], Najafzadeh 2015 [41], San Miguel 2015 [47], Saab 2014 [46]; Intervention models excluded from analysis: Athanasakis 2015 [17], Blazques-Perez 2013 [18], Brogan 2014 [19], Camma 2012 [21], Camma 2013 [20], Chan 2013 [22], Chhatwal 2013 [23], Chhatwal 2015 [24], Cortesi 2015 [25], Cure 2014a [26], Cure 2014b [27], Dan 2015 [30], Elbasha 2013 [31], Ferrante 2013 [32], Gimeno-Ballester 2016 [33], Hagan 2014 [34], Leleu, 2015 [35]; Linas 2014 [36], Liu 2012 [38], McEwan 2014 [40], Petta 2014a [43], Petta 2014b [42], Rein 2015 [45], Tice 2015 [48], Vellopoulou 2014 [49], Warren 2014 [50], Westerhout 2015 [51], Younossi 2015 [52], Zhang 2015 [53]