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Table 1 Characteristics of the audited cases (n = 4307)

From: Community Assessment of COPD Health Care (COACH) study: a clinical audit on primary care performance variability in COPD care

Variables Average (patient level) Inter-center range Inter-regional range
Range P value a Range P value a
Male gender (n) 3159 (73.3) 35.7–93.8 <  0.001 67.9–78.1 <  0.001
Age (years) 71.1 (12.7) 61.9–80.2 <  0.001 67.2–73.3 <  0.001
Rural communities 1771 (41.1) 5.8–74.6 <  0.001
Active smoker (n) 1152 (26.7) 4.8–80.8 <  0.001 20.7–41.9 <  0.001
Ex-smokers (n) 1127 (26.2) 6.1–40.0 <  0.001 0.0–76.5 <  0.001
Life-long never smokers (n) 579 (13.4) 0.0–84.6 <  0.001 8.3–19.0 <  0.001
Previous smoking status unknown (n) 1449 (33.6) 16.8–51.6 <  0.001 2.2–88.1 <  0.001
Tobacco history (pack-years) 44.2 (48.6) 9.0–100 <  0.001 29.9–48.8 0.045
Comorbidities (Charlson index) 2.2 (1.4) 1.5–3.2 <  0.001 1.9–2.4 <  0.001
Comorbidities (COTE index) 1.1 (1.8) 0.5–1.8 <  0.001 0.8–1.4 0.003
Comorbidities: cardiac b (n) 1280 (29.7) 13.3–63.6 <  0.001 26.5–32.5 0.076
Comorbidities: vascular c (n) 913 (21.2) 0–40.0 <  0.001 15.7–24.9 <  0.001
Comorbidities: neoplasms (n) 476 (11.1) 0–31.3 <  0.001 2.9–15.4 <  0.001
Comorbidities: sleep apnea (n) 201 (4.7) 0–20.3 <  0.001 0–7.8 <  0.001
Comorbidities: eyedrops use (n) 54 (1.3) 0–18.2 <  0.001 0.9–2.8 0.018
Comorbidities: psychiatric drugs e (n) 501 (11.6) 0–38.2 <  0.001 6.8–15.8 <  0.001
Comorbidities: prostatic hyperplasia (n) 725 (16.8) 0–33.3 <  0.001 8.8–21.7 <  0.001
Body mass index (kg/m2) 29.2 (5.5) 26.7–37.1 <  0.001 28.4–30.9 0.004
Current FEV1 (mL) d 1690 (694) 810–2720 0.115 1640 – 1794 0.744
Current FEV1 (%) d 64.3 (22.8) 39.0–97.0 0.307 21.0–25.7 0.136
Current FEV1/FVC (%) d 62.3 (13.2) 69.0–51.0 0.741 60.2–65.1 0.249
  1. Data are expressed as mean (standard deviation) or absolute (relative) frequencies, as needed
  2. FEV1 forced expiratory volume in the first second
  3. a Calculated by Chi-squared test or ANOVA to test for variability
  4. b Includes coronary artery disease, heart failure, and atrial fibrillation or flutter
  5. c Includes coronary artery disease, peripheral vascular disease, and cerebrovascular disease
  6. d Obtained from post-bronchodilator spirometry, and if not available, from pre-bronchodilator spirometry
  7. e Includes anxiolytics, antidepressants, and antipsychotics