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Table 3 Large randomised controlled trials of vitamin D supplements with relevant prior 25-hydroxyvitamin D surveys

From: Assessment of research waste part 2: wrong study populations- an exemplar of baseline vitamin D status of participants in trials of vitamin D supplementation

Trial Survey identified
Reference/ Country Trial characteristixcs Baseline 25OHD
(nmol/L) /Assaya
Cites Prior 25OHD
Survey (S)/ Prior SR (PSR) /Any SR (ASR)
Recruit-ment started Survey Date Group surveyed 25OHD
[mean (SD)]
(nmol/L)/Assaa
Survey Referenceb
Chapuy 1994 [21]
France
N = 3270
100% Female
Mean age 84y
Subg 20
CPB
S:Yes Chapuy 1987
PSR:Noe
ASR:No
NS 1984 Men and women
Mean age 74-75y
CPB Chapuy 1987 [71]
Outpatients 23 (10)
Long stay hospital 11 (6)
Lips 1996 [22]
Netherlands
N = 2578
74% Female
Mean age 80y
Subg 27
HPLC
S:Yes Lips 1987
PSR:Noe
ASR:No
1988 NS Men and women
Mean age 76y
CPB Lips 1987 [72]
Hip fracture patients 10.0 (5.7)
Apartment dwellers 17.8 (7.3)
      1984–5   CPB Lowik 1990 [73]
Men 65-79y 21.6 (10.3)
Women 65-79y 20.5 (8.6)
      NS Men and women
Mean age 81-84y
CPB Lips 1988 [74]
Nursing home 12.7 (4.8)
Aged people home 12.9 (7.2)
Meyer 2002 [23]
Norway
N = 1144
76% Female
Mean age 85y
Subg 49
HPLC
S:Yes Mowe 1998
PSR:Noe
ASR:Yes
1995 1989 Men and women
Mean age 78-80y
Hospital patients
HPLC Mowe 1998 [75]
Men 40.4 (23.2)
Women 37.5 (22.6)
Home-living  
Men 59.6 (28.9)
Women 48.5 (20.3)
      1989   CPB Nes 1993 [76]
Men 75-76y 24.1 (10.1)
Women 75-76y 25.9 (11.2)
Trivedi 2003 [37]
UK
N = 2686
24% Female
Mean age 75y
ND S:No
PSR:Noe
ASR:No
1996 1994-5 Men and women Incstar Finch 1998 [77]
Free-living 65y+ 55.5 (26.9)
Institution 65+ 32.8 (15.7)
Larsen 2004 [24]
Denmark
N = 9605
60% Female
Mean age 75y
Subg 36
Diasorin
S:Yes Lund 1979
PSR:Noe
ASR:Yes
1995 Pre 1979 Men and women CPB Lund 1979 [78]
61-93y 26.8 (12.4)
      1989 Men and women CPB van der Wielen 1995 [14]
75-81y Men 24
Women 22
Grant 2005 [29]
UK
N = 5292
85% Female
Mean age 77y
Subg 38
HPLC
S:No
PSR:Yes
ASR:Yes
1999 1994–5 Men and women Incstar Finch 1998 [77]
Free-living 65y+ 55.5 (26.9)
Institution 65+ 32.8 (15.7)
Porthouse
2005 [38]
UK
N = 3314
100% Female
Mean age 77y
ND S:No
PSR:No
ASR:No
2001 1994–5 Women Incstar Finch 1998 [77]
Free-living 65y+ 51.7 (24.7)
Institution 65+ 32.5 (15.5)
Jackson 2006 [33]
USA
N = 36,282
100% Female
Mean age 62y
Subg 48
Liaison
S:No
PSR:Noe
ASR:Yes
1995 1988-94 Men and women LC-MS/MS equivalent Schleicher 2016c [79]
40-59y 60.1 (58.7,61.5)
≥60y 58.4 (57.4,59.5)
All females 59.2 (57.9,60.6)
Law 2006 [34]
UK
N = 3717
76% Female
Mean age 85y
Subg 47
IDS
S:No
PSR:No
ASR:No
2000 1994–5 Men and women Incstar Finch 1998 [77]
Institution 65+ 32.8 (15.7)
Lyons 2007 [39]
UK
N = 3440
76% Female
Mean age 84y
ND S:No
PSR:No
ASR:Yes
1999 1994–5 Men and women Incstar Finch 1998 [77]
Institution 65+ 32.8 (15.7)
Smith 2007 [35]
UK
N = 9440
54% Female
Mean age 79y
Subg 43
Nicholls
S:No
PSR:No
ASR:Yes
1998 1994–5 Men and women Incstar Finch 1998 [77]
Free-living 65y+ 55.5 (26.9)
Institution 65+ 32.8 (15.7)
Lappe 2008 [25]
USA
N = 5201
100% Female
Median age 19y
ND S:Yes Gordon 2004
PSR:No
ASR:No
2001 2001–3 Boys and girls Nichols Gordon 2004 [80]
11-18y  
Summer 49.8 (21.3)
Winter 38.2 (18.8)
      2001–2 Males and females LC-MS/MS equivalent Schleicher 2016 [79]
12-19y 63.0 (60.8,65.2)
20-39y 62.8 (60.6,64.9)
      1988–94 Males and females LC-MS/MS equivalent Schleicher 2016c [79]
12-19y 66.2 (64.1,68.4)
20-39y 64.4 (62.8,66.0)
Salovaara 2010 [30]
Finland
N = 3432
100% Female
Mean age 67y
Subg 50
Diasorin
S:No
PSR:No
ASR:Yes
2002 2000–1 Women Incstar Kauppi 2009 [81]
Mean age 53y
Age range 30-97y
45.2 (26.4)
Sanders 2010 [26]
Australia
N = 2258
100% Female
Mean age 76y
Subg 50
Diasorin
S:Yes Pasco 2001
PSR:No
ASR:Yes
2003 1994–7 Women Incstar Pasco 2001 [82]
60-79y 62 (31.7)
80y+ 53 (26.8)
Punthakee 2012 [42]
Multinational
N = 1221
41% Female
Mean age 67y
ND S: No
PSR: Yes
ASR:Yes
2009     
Baron 2015 [36]
USA
N = 2259
37% Female
Mean age 58y
61
IDS
S:No
PSR:Noe
ASR:Yes
2004 2001-2 Men and women LC-MS/MS equivalent Schleicher 2016c [79]
40-59y 62.4 (59.9,64.8)
≥60y 60.4 (58.0,62.9)
Cooper 2016 [27]d
UK
N = 1134
100% Female
Mean age 31y
47
Liaison
S:Yes Javaid 2006
PSR:Noe
ASR:Yes
2008 1991-2 Pregnant women IDS Javaid 2006 [83]
Mean 27y 18% < 26.5
31% 26.5–50
52% > 50
      2008–12 Women
19 - 64y
Liaison
47.3
National Diet and Nutrition Survey 2014. [84]
ViDA 2017 [28]d
New Zealand
N = 5110
42% Female
Mean age 66y
63 LCMS/MS S:Yes Rockwell 2006
PSR:Yes
ASR:Yes
2011 1996–7 Men 45-64y/65y+ 52/55 Rockell 2006 [85]
Women 45-64y/65y+ 45/43
Diasorin
      2008–9 Men and women 61/63/66/62 Adult nutrition survey 2009 [86]
45-54y/55-64y/65-74y/≥75y LCMS/MS