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Table 2 Publications of calcium intake with non-skeletal endpoints by study design

From: Assessment of research waste part 1: an exemplar from examining study design, surrogate and clinical endpoints in studies of calcium intake and vitamin D supplementation

Endpoint Observational studies RCTa
Cross-sectional Case-control Cohort Total
IHD/MI 1 4 27 31 9b
Stroke 1 2 25 27 8b
Cancer (any site) 0 188 112 300 7c
 Colorectal cancer 0 49 45 94 3c
 Breast cancer 0 25 25 50 3c
 Prostate cancer 0 34 32 66 2c
Colorectal adenoma 3 14 8 25 2
  1. Abbreviation: IHD/MI ischaemic heart disease or myocardial infarction, RCT randomised controlled trial
  2. aTwo RCTs had colorectal adenoma as the primary endpoint. All other RCTs reported data as secondary endpoints
  3. bUnpublished data for myocardial infarction and stroke from an additional 11 RCTs published in meta-analyses [25, 26]
  4. cUnpublished data for cancer published in a meta-analysis [27] from an additional 6 RCTs for total cancer and colorectal cancer, 4 RCTs for breast cancer, and 2 RCTs for prostate cancer