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Table 1 Characteristics of married Millennium Cohort Study participants for overall sample and by referral choice

From: Engaging military couples in marital research: does requesting referrals from service members to recruit their spouses introduce sample bias?

Service member characteristics Overall Referring
N = 25,017 n = 8209
n a (%)b n a (%)c
Demographics
 Sex
  Male 19,272 (86.1) 6626 (34.1)
  Female 5745 (13.9) 1583 (26.8)
 Age (years)
  17–24 7207 (32.9) 2241 (32.3)
  25–34 15,448 (60.4) 5153 (33.4)
  35–44 2082 (6.2) 710 (33.6)
  > 44 280 (0.6) 105 (37.4)
 Race/ethnicity
  White, non-Hispanic 18,540 (69.1) 6393 (35.3)
  Black, non-Hispanic 2202 (12.3) 562 (26.1)
  Hispanic 2290 (11.0) 655 (28.6)
  Other 1985 (7.7) 599 (30.5)
 Education
  Less than bachelor’s 18,250 (81.5) 5760 (32.4)
  Bachelor’s or higher 6767 (18.5) 2449 (36.0)
 Number of children
  0 10,890 (43.6) 3210 (29.7)
  1 6966 (27.9) 2314 (33.8)
  2 4605 (18.4) 1648 (35.8)
  3 or more 2556 (10.1) 1037 (40.8)
 Financial problems
  Not bothered 14,390 (54.0) 4185 (29.2)
  Bothered a little or a lot 10,353 (46.0) 3969 (37.9)
Military characteristics
 Deployment status
  Nondeployed 8938 (32.5) 2865 (31.9)
  Deployed without combat 3362 (12.7) 891 (26.5)
  Deployed with combat 12,594 (54.8) 4443 (35.6)
 Service branch
  Air Force 7770 (19.0) 2088 (25.4)
  Army 10,976 (49.3) 3976 (35.8)
  Marine Corps 2181 (14.6) 744 (33.3)
  Navy/Coast Guard 4090 (17.2) 1401 (33.5)
 Component
  Active duty 19,863 (80.3) 6305 (32.1)
  Reserve/National Guard 5154 (19.8) 1904 (37.1)
 Pay grade
  Enlisted 20,434 (90.6) 6550 (32.7)
  Officer 4583 (9.4) 1659 (36.3)
Individual health and adjustment
 Mental component score
  Lowest 15th percentile 3578 (16.8) 1375 (37.9)
  Middle 70th percentile 16,698 (69.2) 5597 (33.7)
  Highest 15th percentile 3578 (14.0) 1109 (32.6)
 Physical component score
  Lowest 15th percentile 3578 (16.5) 1325 (37.4)
  Middle 70th percentile 16,700 (69.5) 5631 (34.1)
  Highest 15th percentile 3576 (14.0) 1125 (31.4)
Posttraumatic growth index score, mean (SE) 40.39 (0.08) 40.12 (0.13)
 Difficulties with significant other
  Not bothered 16,383 (63.4) 5070 (31.2)
  Bothered a little or a lot 8366 (36.6) 3082 (36.8)
 Caring for others
  Not bothered 17,188 (68.3) 5210 (30.5)
  Bothered a little or a lot 7542 (31.7) 2933 (39.0)
 No one to turn to
  Not bothered 20,145 (79.7) 6429 (32.2)
  Bothered a little or a lot 4530 (20.4) 1713 (37.6)
  1. Abbreviation: SE Standard error
  2. aFrequencies are unweighted and may not sum to the total population presented because of missing data
  3. bColumn percentages and means are weighted and normalized to the study sample
  4. cRow percentages and means are weighted and normalized to the study sample