Skip to main content

Table 3 Characteristics of Millennium Cohort Family Study participants by recruitment status (N = 8743)

From: Engaging military couples in marital research: does requesting referrals from service members to recruit their spouses introduce sample bias?

Spouse characteristics Referred Direct p-valuec
N = 5307 N = 3436
n a (%)b n a (%)b
Demographics
 Sex      .0067
  Male 725 (7.4) 401 (6.1)  
  Female 4582 (92.6) 3035 (93.9)  
 Age (years)      <.0001*
  17–24 1339 (31.7) 675 (25.1)  
  25–34 3309 (58.8) 2344 (65.7)  
  35–44 533 (8.0) 333 (7.5)  
  > 44 126 (1.4) 84 (1.6)  
 Race/ethnicity      .0285
  White, non-Hispanic 4183 (76.5) 2622 (73.6)  
  Black, non-Hispanic 226 (5.7) 146 (5.6)  
  Hispanic 461 (10.1) 332 (11.2)  
  Other 410 (7.8) 315 (9.6)  
 Education      .0067
  Less than bachelor’s 3198 (67.3) 1979 (64.2)  
  Bachelor’s or higher 2097 (32.7) 1447 (35.8)  
 Number of children      <.0001*
  0 2105 (40.1) 1475 (42.5)  
  1 1464 (27.8) 1015 (29.6)  
  2 1061 (19.7) 657 (19.7)  
  3 or more 677 (12.4) 289 (8.2)  
 Employment      <.0001*
  Full-time 1730 (29.7) 1284 (35.2)  
  Part-time 694 (13.7) 404 (12.1)  
  Not employed, looking for work 536 (11.3) 298 (9.6)  
  Not employed, not looking for work 246 (4.5) 150 (4.6)  
  Homemaker 1849 (36.2) 1130 (33.5)  
  Student 237 (4.6) 160 (5.1)  
 Financial problems or worries      .0003*
  Not bothered 2480 (42.3) 1761 (46.7)  
  Bothered a little or a lot 2754 (57.7) 1651 (53.3)  
Military characteristics of the service member
 Deployment status      <.0001*
  Nondeployed 1783 (29.9) 1190 (32.2)  
  Deployed without combat 594 (10.4) 473 (13.4)  
  Deployed with combat 2925 (59.8) 1751 (54.4)  
 Service branch      <.0001*
  Air Force 1338 (14.4) 1180 (21.8)  
  Army 2561 (53.3) 1383 (45.0)  
  Marine Corps 485 (14.6) 292 (14.5)  
  Navy/Coast Guard 923 (17.8) 581 (18.7)  
 Component      .0006*
  Active duty 4109 (78.1) 2773 (81.4)  
  Reserve/National Guard 1198 (21.9) 663 (18.6)  
 Pay grade      .0785
  Enlisted 4002 (87.2) 2552 (86.1)  
  Officer 1305 (12.8) 884 (13.9)  
 Spouse’s military experience      .2629
  Never 4374 (85.9) 2784 (84.6)  
  Prior 488 (6.7) 341 (7.3)  
  Current 432 (7.4) 302 (8.1)  
Individual health and adjustment
 Mental component score      .0028
  Lowest 15th percentile 833 (17.7) 462 (14.8)  
  Middle 70th percentile 3609 (69.0) 2428 (70.2)  
  Highest 15th percentile 772 (13.3) 523 (15.0)  
 Physical component score      .0534
  Lowest 15th percentile 815 (16.6) 480 (14.8)  
  Middle 70th percentile 3640 (69.0) 2391 (69.6)  
  Highest 15th percentile 759 (14.3) 542 (15.7)  
Marital
 Years of marriage      <.0001*
  < 2 810 (19.4) 380 (14.7)  
  2–5 2978 (57.8) 1974 (57.8)  
  6–10 1095 (18.5) 826 (22.3)  
  ≥ 11 338 (4.4) 238 (5.2)  
 Difficulties with significant other      .0003*
  Not bothered 3414 (62.8) 2366 (67.1)  
  Bothered a little or a lot 1806 (37.2) 1048 (32.9)  
  Abbreviated quality of marriage index, mean (SE) 17.15 (0.06) 17.13 (0.08) .8263
 Military life
  Months away from home (service member), mean (SE) 3.31 (0.06) 3.02 (0.07) .0009*
  Hours of work per week (service member), mean (SE) 45.77 (0.32) 46.40 (0.39) .2116
  Work-family conflict scale, mean (SE) 21.44 (0.08) 21.41 (0.10) .8255
  Deployment stress, mean (SE) 1.67 (0.02) 1.59 (0.02) .0026
  Injury stress, mean (SE) 0.63 (0.02) 0.61 (0.02) .3100
  Family stress, mean (SE) 1.69 (0.02) 1.63 (0.02) .0417
Family
 Caring for others      .0028
  Not bothered 2867 (54.3) 1999 (58.0)  
  Bothered a little or a lot 2358 (45.7) 1414 (42.0)  
  1. Abbreviation: SE Standard error
  2. aFrequencies were unweighted and may not sum to the total population presented because of missing data
  3. bColumn percentages and means were weighted and normalized to the study sample. Percentages may not sum to 100 because of rounding
  4. cp-values were calculated with chi-squared tests and t-tests, respectively. They were weighted and normalized to the study population. Using the Bonferroni adjustment, significance was assessed with α = .002
  5. *Values are significant