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Table 1 Description of cohorts reported in the included articles

From: Retention strategies in longitudinal cohort studies: a systematic review and meta-analysis

Sample Reference Study Name Wave 1 Sample Size Wave 1 Mean Age Overall Retention Rate No. Waves Study Duration (years) No. Retention Strategies
Clinical cohort studies
 Adolescent and adult non-injecting heroin users [32] Project Brown 300 16–40 98% 2 1.00 9
 Adolescent/young adult cancer patients [33] Resilience in Adolescents and Young Adults with Cancer Study 52 17.6 35% 3 1.50 4
 Adolescent/Young Adult mobile young injection drug users [34]   101 22 48% 6 2.00 9
 Adolescents and young adults with Type 1 Diabetes [35] Young Adult Diabetes Assessment (YADA) 204 17–18 97% 3 5.00 18
 Adult asthmatic pregnant women [36] Syracuse AUDIT (Assessment of Urban Dwellings for Indoor Toxics) 103 25.4 86% 5 1.00 9
 Adult cannabis users [37]   193 32 84% 90 0.25 3
 Adult entitlement claimants from the Accident Compensation Corporation [38] Prospective Outcomes of Injury Study (POIS) 2856 18–64 79% 4 2.00 4
 Adult major trauma patients [39] Victorian State Trauma Registry 1102 40 70% 2 0.50 3
 Adult myocardial infarction survivors [40] Western New York Acute Myocardial Infarction (MI) Study 884 54 90% 4 7.00 2
 Adult parents of overweight children with low-income [41]   37 20–50+ 46% 26 1.00 14
 Adult Puerto Rican/Mexicans with a mental health diagnosis [42]   68 18–50 59% 3 5.00 20
 Adult smokers and non-smoker comparisons [43] International Tobacco Control (ITC) China Survey 6001 18–55+ 68% 3 3.00 7
 Adult spinal surgery patients [44] Danish spine surgery registry (Danespine) 506 58.94 100% 3 1.00 1
 Adult survivors of ARDS [45] Toronto Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome (ARDS) Study 109 86% 3 5.00 18
 Adult survivors of SARS [45] Toronto Severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) Study 117 91% 2 2.00 17
 Adults with diabetes [46] Living with Diabetes Study 3951 61.4 81% 3 3.00 15
 Adult women at-risk of cardiovascular events [47] PREDICT Study 1110 21+ 90% 9 2.00 12
 Adult women at-risk of HIV infection [48]   411 21 94% 2 1.00 4
 Adult women breast cancer survivors [49]   121 59.7 96% 2 1.00 3
 Adult women with HIV/AIDS [50] Instituto de Pesquisa Clínica Evandro Chagas (IPEC) Cohort of Women Living with HIV/ AIDS followed up in Fundação Oswaldo Cruz (FIOCRUZ) Rio de Janeiro 225 32 56% 3 3.00 2
 Adults at first-episode psychosis [51]   71 18–60 70% 3 5.00 1
 Adults at-risk for HIV infection [52]   2191 18–49 77% 2 1.00 4
 Adults at-risk of problem gambling plus comparison group [53] Quinte Longitudinal Study 4121 46.1 94% 5 5.00 1
 Adults who self-harm [54]   150 28.4 95% 3 6.00 4
 Adults who use urinary catheters [55]   33 43 100% 4 0.50 2
 Adults with acute transient ischemic attack or stroke [56] Oxford Vascular Study 1236 75.2 98% 7 10.00 3
 Adults with Alzheimers Disease [57] REAL.FR study 686 77.9 59% 2 2.00 3
 Adults with Alzheimers Disease (AD) and their carers [58]   40 78 81% 5 1.00 16
 Adults with Alzheimers Disease or Mild Cognitive Impairment and comparison [59] Australian Imaging, Biomarkers and Lifestyle Flagship Study of Ageing (AIBL) 1112 69.7 90% 2 1.50 3
 Adults with aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (aSAH) [60] Family Caregiver study 59 52 83% 4 1.00 5
 Adults with back pain [61]   250 30–59 68% 14 7.00 3
 Adults with primary malignant brain tumour (PMBT) and their caregivers [60] 20-Hete Study 496 53.12 90% 3 1.00 3
 Adults with primary Sjögren’s syndrome [62]   222 52.5 70% 2 7.60 2
 Adults with schizophrenia and comparison group [63]   56 21 89% 2 2.00 1
 Adults with Severe Traumatic Brain Injury [64] PariS-TBI study 504 42 60% 2 4.00 6
 Adults with temporomandibular disorders [65] Orofacial Pain: Prospective Evaluation and Risk Assessment (OPPERA) Study 3263 31 84% 11 2.80 5
 Adults with traumatic brain injury [66] Tasmanian Neurotrauma Register (TNTR) 947 36.1 19% 7 3.00 5
 Adults with Traumatic Brain Injury [67]   77 67.1 57% 3 0.50 1
 Adult burn victims [68] Burns Registry of Australia and New Zealand 463 41.8 21% 5 2.00 4
 Caregivers of adult cancer patients [69]   206 57 85% 3 1.10 1
 Child twins and their siblings [70] Australian Twin ADHD Project (ATAP) 1938 4–12 43% 3 9.00 3
 Children at-risk of HIV infection [71] AIDS-ill families study 3515 13.5 97% 2 1.00 9
 Children at-risk of thyroid cancer and comparison group [72]   600 11 88% 2 8.00 9
 Children exposed to Cocaine/opiate and comparison [73] Maternal Lifestyle Study (MLS) 13,888 0.1 76% 5 15.00 16
 Children perinatally infected with HIV and comparison [74] IMPAACT P1055 Psychiatric Co-Morbidity Study 582 12.4 81% 2 2.00 3
 Children who were former child soldiers [75]   260 10–17 69% 3 6.00 3
 Children with ADHD and a sibling for comparison [26] International Multicenter ADHD Genetics (IMAGE) study 459 11.4 76% 2 6.00 1
 Children with ADHD and comparisons [76] Berkeley Girls with ADHD Longitudinal Study (BGALS) 228 9.6 95% 3 10.00 2
 Female adolescent/young adult survivors of a mass campus shooting [77]   812 19 81% 7 2.50 1
 Infants at-risk of developing diabetes [78] The Environmental Determinants of Diabetets in the Young (TEDDY) study 4138 0.4 74% 3 1.00 1
 Male sex workers [79]   50 17–26+ 34% 2 0.50 4
 Men who have Sex with Men [25] Bangkok Men who have Sex with Men Cohort Study (BMCS) 1744 26 90% 10 3.00 3
 Men who have Sex with Men [80]   2607 22.7 22% 2 0.25 2
 Men who have Sex with Men [81]   710 18–54 74% 2 1.00 5
 Men who have Sex with Men [82]   1003 28 70% 8 2.60 1
 Men who have Sex with Men [83]   511 29 55% 3 0.75 5
 Men who have Sex with Men [84]   278 32 16% 3 1.00 5
 Men who have Sex with Men [85]   327 30.8 92% 3 1.00 1
 Population at-risk for HIV infection [86]   1000 13–49 77% 5 2.50 3
Non-clinical cohort studies
 Adolescent mother-child dyads [87]   97 14–20 38% 3 4.00 9
 Adolescent population [88] Danish Youth Cohort 12,498 13.4 25% 3 2.00 1
 Adolescent population [89] Dating It Safe 964 16.1 86% 2 1.00 1
 Adolescent population [90] Healthy Teens Longitudinal Study 611 14.8 66% 7 6.00 1
 Adolescent population [91] International Youth Development Study (IYDS) 1858 13 98% 3 2.00 4
 Adolescent population [92] TRacking Adolescents’ Individual Lives Survey (TRAILS) 2773 11.1 79% 4 8.00 1
 Adolescent population [93] Youth Asset Study (YAS) 1117 12–17 97% 5 4.00 32
 Adolescent population [94]   1535 14.9 57% 2 1.00 1
 Adolescent population [95]   497 13.03 86% 6 6.00 1
 Adolescent/Young adult twins [96] Minnesota Twin Family Study (MTFS) 1252 17 93% 4 12.00 1
 Adult African American population [97] Religion and Health in African Americans (RHIAA) study 2803 54.86 40% 2 2.50 16
 Adult African American women [98] Study of Environment, Lifestyle and Fibroids (SELF) 1696 23–34 87% 2 1.67 3
 Adult Alaska Native and American  Indian population [99] Education and Research Towards Health (EARTH) study 3828 18–55+ 88% 2 1.50 18
 Adult low income mothers [100] Welfare Client Longitudinal Study (WCLS) 498 18–35+ 89% 2 1.00 11
 Adult male population [101] Florey Adelaide Male Ageing Study (FAMAS) 1195 55 96% 2 1.00 14
 Adult mother-child dyads [102]   4318 0.2 84% 5 1.00 3
 Adult mother-child dyads [103]   365 13.7 64% 2 1.00 4
 Adult officeworkers [104]   53 42 100% 26 1.00 1
 Adult online panel members [105] ATTEMPT Cohort 2009 47.9 52% 5 1.00 3
 Adult online panel members [106]   202 33.8 47% 3 0.00 1
 Adult population [107] Baltimore Epidemiologic Catchment Area Follow-up 3481 18–65+ 53% 3 23.00 1
 Adult population [108] Healthy Aging in Neighborhoods of Diversity across the Life Span (HANDLS) study 3722 30–64 79% 3 4.00 12
 Adult population [109] Heart Strategies Concentrating on Risk Evaluation (Heart SCORE) study 1841 59.1 84% 5 4.00 11
 Adult population [110] Helsinki Aging Study (HAS) 170 80 42% 2 5.00 3
 Adult population [111] Knee Clinical Assessment Study (CAS(K)) 819 50–80+ 95% 2 1.50 3
 Adult population [112] Longitudinal Assessment of Women (LAW) 511 64.7 96% 5 5.00 16
 Adult population [113] Midlife in the United States (MIDUS) 7108 25–74 75% 2 10.00 4
 Adult population [114] MRC National Survey of Health and Development (NSHD) 3163 60–64 84% 2 9.00 2
 Adult population [115] Netherlands Mental Health Survey and Incidence Study (NEMESIS-2) 18–64 18+ 80% 2 3.00 9
 Adult population [116] Netherlands Study of Depression and Anxiety (NESDA) 2981 39.9 87% 2 2.00 10
 Adult population [117] New Zealand Attitudes and Values Study 6518 48 62% 4 3.00 12
 Adult population [118] NutriNet-Santé Cohort Study 15,000 18+ 44% 2 2.00 8
 Adult population [119] People’s Republic of China-United States of America (PRC-USA) Collaborative Study of Cardiovascular and Cardiopulmonary Epidemiology 1739 57.7 94% 3 5.00 1
 Adult population [120] Quinte Longitudinal Study (QLS) 4121 18–65+ 94% 5 5.00 1
 Adult population [121] Study of health in Pomerania (SHIP) 6267 20–79 84% 2 5.00 10
 Adult population [122] Study of Use of Products and Exposure-Related Behavior (SUPERB) 481 36 47% 9 3.00 3
 Adult population [123]   700 48.8 71% 4 2.00 2
 Adult pregnant women [124] Drakenstein Child Health Study (DCHS) 585 26.6 90% 2 1.33 6
 Adult pregnant women [125] G-GrippeNet (GGNET) Project 153 34 78% 10 0.20 2
 Adult pregnant women [126] Maternal Anxiety in Relation to Infant Development (MARI) Study 306 28 90% 7 2.00 2
 Adult pregnant women [127] Mater-University Study of Pregnancy (MUSP) 6753 24.3 88% 6 27.00 5
 Adult pregnant women [128] Pregnancy, Infection, and Nutrition Study 262 30 70% 2 2.00 5
 Adult pregnant women [129]   118 31.6 72% 4 1.00 1
 Adult pregnant women [130]   40,333 30.3 65% 2 0.75 1
 Adult pregnant women [131]   1040 18–34+ 71% 3 1.10 1
 Adult premenopausal women [132] Uterine Fibroid Study (UFS) 1141 35–49 85% 3 8.00 5
 Adult South Asians living in US [133] Mediators of Atherosclerosis in South Asians Living in America (MASALA) study 906 40–84 48% 2 0.75 6
 Adult veterans [134]   1319 33 79% 2 1.00 4
 Adult women [135] Australian Longitudinal Study on Women’s Health 14,247 18–23 77% 4 4.00 8
 Adult women [136] Australian Longitudinal Study on Women’s Health 40,395 18–75 80% 2 6.00 5
 Adult women [137] Manitoba Breast Screening Program 47,637 50–68 80% 2 2.50 5
 Adult women [138]   1435 40–50 72% 3 3.00 13
 Adult women [139]   48,125 38 91% 2 12.00 5
 Adult women hoping to become pregnant [140]   30 29.4 43% 4 1.50 2
 Adult/Young Adult Probationers [141]   199 17–35 52% 5 15.00 7
 Birth cohort [142] Australian Aboriginal Birth Cohort study 686 0 72% 3 18.00 31
 Birth cohort [143] Birth to Twenty (BT20) birth cohort 3273 0 70% 19 16.00 16
 Birth cohort [144] Danish National Birth Cohort 61,895 0 63% 2 7.00 1
 Birth cohort [145] ECAGE Project (Study of Food Intake and Eating Behavior of Pregnant Women) 462 0 94% 3 0.65 2
 Birth cohort [146] Environments for Healthy Living (EHL) 3368 0 65% 2 5.50 7
 Birth cohort [147] Geographic research on wellbeing (GROW) study 9256 7 33% 2 7.00 9
 Birth cohort [148] Growing up in New Zealand 6846 0 95% 2 0.75 23
 Birth cohort [149] Japan Children’s Study (JCS) 467 0.3 81% 6 3.50 13
 Birth cohort [150] Nascita e INFanzia gli Effetti dell’Ambiente (NINFEA) cohort 7003 0 78% 4 4.00 6
 Birth cohort [151]   413 0 95% 2 0.50 1
 Birth cohort [152]   1196 0 46% 5 30.00 1
 Birth cohort of children from Lesbian parents [153] US National Longitudinal Lesbian Family Study (NLLFS) 154 0 93% 5 17.00 1
 Child African-American population and their parents [154]   76 3.4 70% 2 3.50 18
 Child monozygotic (MZ) and dizygotic (DZ) twins [155] University of Southern California Study of Risk Factors for Antisocial Behavior (USC RFAB) 1569 9 59% 5 8.00 10
 Child population [156] Danish youth cohort Vestliv 3054 14.5 64% 3 6.00 1
 Child population [157] Ho Chi Minh City Youth Cohort 759 11.8 77% 5 5.00 4
 Child population [158]   405 11 91% 4 4.00 17
 Indigenous adolescents [159]   671 11.3 79% 8 8.00 7
 Mother-child dyads [160] Center for Oral Health Research in Appalachia 2 (COHRA2) Study 744 28.4 79% 2 2.50 1
 Older adults [161] Cardiovascular Health Study (CHS) 5888 73 46% 2 7.00 2
 Older adults [162] Chinese Longitudinal Healthy Longevity Survey (CLHLS) 16,020 65+ 56% 3 2.00 1
 Older adults [163] Longitudinal Aging Study Amsterdam (LASA) 3107 70 32% 6 17.00 6
 Older adults [164] New England Centenarian Study (NECS) 759 97+ 86% 2 3.50 1
 Older adults [165] Newcastle 85+ Study 854 85+ 40% 4 5.00 11
 Older adults [166] Physiological Research to Improve Sleep and Memory Project 78.2 70+ 83% 3 2.00 24
 Older adults [167] UAB Study of Aging 1000 65+ 95% 2 4.00 16
 Population during political turmoil [168]   889 36 89% 2 0.50 1
 Population during political turmoil [169]   1022 33.9 85% 2 6.00 7
 Young adult women population [170] Chlamydia Incidence and Re-infection Rates Study (CIRIS) 1116 21 79% 3 1.00 13
Overall Mean (Std Dev) 3459 (8979) 24.7 (23.5) 73.9% (20.1%) 4.6 (8.0) 4.5 (5.1) 6.2 (6.2)