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Table 1 Summary description of prognostic tools

From: Prognostic models for intracerebral hemorrhage: systematic review and meta-analysis

Author Year Population Tool Timing Variables AUC (SE)
Mortality prediction tools
 Alsina [24] 2014 Supratentorial ICH not submitted to surgery Equation 30 days IVH, hematoma size, and midline shift. 0·933 (0·029)
 Berwaerts [41] 2000 Oral anticoagulant related ICH Equation Discharge Hematoma diameter and CT signs of ischemia.
 Bhatia [65] 2013 Primary ICH Equation Discharge GCS, hematoma size, IVH,and ventilatory requirement. 0·822 (0·033)
 Broderick [44] 1993 Spontaneous ICH Equation 30 days GCS, hematoma size. 0·805 (0·036)
 Broderick´ [44] 1993 Spontaneous ICH Equation 30 days Hematoma size, IVH volume, GCS, and surgery.
 Celik [68] 2014 Spontaneous ICH ANN 10 days Age, gender, hypertension, diabetes, smoking, mean blood pressure, Scandinavian Stroke Scale score, pulse pressure, localization of hemorrhage (including infratentorial), volume of hemorrhage, ventricular drainage, and midline shift.
 Cerillo [21] 1981 Operated supratentorial ICH Equation Discharge Age, mode of onset, site of hemorrhage, level of consciousness, time from onset to surgery, congestive heart failure/coronary artery disease, and diabetes/uremia. 0·893 (0·033)
 Chen [45] 2011 Nontraumatic ICH Score Discharge GCS, hematoma volume, IVH, and diabetes. 0·867 (0·027)
 Chiu [61] 2016 Spontaneous ICH CART+SVM 30 days GCS, hematoma size.
 Chuang [63] 2009 Spontaneous ICH Score 30 days Age, GCS, hypertension, glucose and dialysis dependency. 0·890 (0·026)
 Edwards [28] 1999 Supratentorial ICH ANN Discharge Gender, race, hydrocephalus, mean arterial pressure, pulse pressure, GCS, IVH, hematoma size, location (thalamic, basal, lobal), cisternal effacement, pineal shift, hypertension, diabetes, and age. 0·984 (0·020)
 Edwards´ [28] 1999 Supratentorial ICH Equation Discharge Hydrocephalus, GCS, gender, pineal shift 0·919 (0·043)
 Fogelholm [31] 1997 Supratentorial ICH Equation 28 days Consciousness, mean arterial pressure, subarachnoid spread, midline shift, glucose, and vomiting.
 Frithz [12] 1976 ICH patients < 70 years Decision tree Discharge Consciousness, diastolic blood pressure. 0·943 (0·024)
 Galbois [38] 2013 Spontaneous comatose ICH not submitted to surgery Score ICU stay Brainstem reflexes, swirl sign. 0·850 (0·050)
 Galbois´ [38] 2013 Spontaneous comatose ICH not submitted to surgery Score ICU stay Corneal reflexes, swirl sign. 0·840 (0·051)
 Grellier [66] 1983 Spontaneous ICH Score 2 days Age, gender, consciousness (normal, changed, coma), CV risk factors (alcohol, tobacco, hypertension, dyslipidemia, CV disease), and ICH location (infratentorial, thalamic, internal capsule, oval center, lobar).
 Hallevi [34] 2009 Primary ICH with IVH Score Discharge GCS, total volume (ICH + IVH). 0·840a
 Hemphill [48] 2001 Nontraumatic ICH Score 30 days Age, ICH volume, infratentorial ICH, GCS, and IVH. 0·920 (0·020)
 Ho [64] 2016 Primary ICH Score Discharge Age, creatinine, NIHSS, heart disease, gender, and systolic blood pressure. 0·870 (0·018)
 Huang [40] 2008 Spontaneous medically treated ICH in hemodialysis patients Score 30 days GCS, age, and systolic blood pressure. 0·745 (0·048)
 Li [50] 2012 Spontaneous ICH Equation Discharge Age, GCS, glucose, and white blood cell count. 0·923 (0·020)
 Li´ [49] 2011 Primary ICH Score Discharge Age, Glucose, LDH, and white blood cell count. 0·745 (0·025)
 Lukic [33] 2012 Primary supratentorial medically treated ICH Equation Discharge Level of consciousness, GCS verbal response, age, gender, and pulse pressure. 0·856 (0·018)
 Lukic´ [26] 2012 Spontaneous supratentorial ICH ANN Discharge Age, gender, pulse pressure, mean arterial pressure, GCS (E/V/M), and consciousness. 0·883 (0.048)
 Lukic´´ [26] 2012 Spontaneous supratentorial ICH Equation Discharge GCS, level of consciousness. 0·819 (0·030)
 Masé [27] 1995 Primary supratentorial medically treated ICH Equation 30 days GCS, IVH spread, and hematoma size.
 Parry-Jones [53] 2013 Spontaneous ICH Equation 30 days Age, GCS, IVH extension, and hematoma volume. 0·897 (0·010)
 Peng [54] 2010 Spontaneous ICH Random Forrest 30 days Age, gender, hypertension, diabetes, ischemic heart disease, previous stroke, anemia, dialysis dependency, GCS, systolic/diastolic/mean blood pressure, infratentorial bleed, site of ICH, ICH volume, IVH, pineal shift, hydrocephalus, hemoglobin, and glucose. 0·870 (0·015)
 Peng´ [54] 2010 Spontaneous ICH ANN 30 days Age, gender, GCS, site of ICH, ICH volume, IVH, hypertension, diabetes, anemia, and previous stroke. 0·810 (0·020)
 Peng´´ [54] 2010 Spontaneous ICH SVM 30 days Age, gender, GCS, site, ICH volume, IVH, hypertension, diabetes, anemia, and previous stroke. 0·790 (0·020)
 Peng´´´ [54] 2010 Spontaneous ICH Equation 30 days Anemia, age, GCS, hypertension, and dialysis dependency. 0·780 (0·020)
 Romano [56] 2009 Primary ICH Score 30 days GCS, hematoma volume, and intraventricular spread. 0·915 (0·026)
 Ruiz-Sandoval [58] 2007 Primary ICH Score Discharge Age, infratentorial bleed, ICH size, GCS, and IVH spread. 0·880 (0·017)
 Safatli [60] 2016 Primary ICH Score 30 days GCS, infratentorial bleed, and hematoma volume.
 Szepesi [32] 2015 Supratentorial ICH Equation 30 days Age, hematoma volume, IVH, systolic blood pressure, glucose, and potassium.
 Tabak [59] 2007 Spontaneous ICH Equation Discharge Age, creatinine, glucose, pH, CO2, O2, partial thromboplastin time, prothrombin time, platelets, white blood cells, cancer, temperature, pulse, systolic blood pressure, respiratory rate, and altered mental status. 0·890 (0·003)
 Takahashi [67] 2006 Spontaneous ICH CART Discharge Japan Coma Scale, ICH volume, and age. 0·853 (0·024)
 Takahashi´ [67] 2006 Spontaneous ICH Equation Discharge Japan Coma Scale, temperature, infratentorial bleed, and ICH volume. 0·810 (0·033)
 Tshikwela [36] 2012 Black hypertensive primary ICH Score Discharge GCS, ICH volume, left hemisphere involved.
 Tshikwela´ [36] 2012 Black hypertensive primary ICH Score Discharge Gender, GCS, midline shift.
 Tuhrim [23] 1999 Primary supratentorial ICH managed medically Equation 30 days GCS, ICH volume, pulse pressure, hydrocephalus, and IVH volume.
 Tuhrim´ [30] 1991 Supratentorial ICH Equation 30 days Hematoma size, IVH, GCS, pulse pressure, and IVHaGCS interaction. 0·900 (0·027)
 Tuhrim´´ [29] 1988 Supratentorial hemorrhage Equation 30 days GCS score, hematoma size, and pulse pressure. 0·892 (0·042)
 Ziai [35] 2015 Primary ICH with IVH Score Discharge Temperature, glucose, intracranial pressure, and Do-Not-Resuscitate orders 0·850 (0·030)
 Zis [39] 2014 Non-operated primary ICH Score 30 days GCS, ICH size, INR, IVH spread, and infratentorial location. 0·920 (0·023)
Functional outcome prediction tools
 Appelboom [10] 2012 AVM related ICH Score 3 months Age, IVH, infratentorial bleed, GCS, and hematoma size. 0·914 (0·039)
 Creutzfeld [47] 2011 Primary ICH Equation Discharge Age, GCS, heart rate, mass effect, IVH, premorbid level of function, and systolic blood pressure. 0·930 (0·014)
 Flemming [18] 2001 Lobar primary supratentorial ICH Tree based model Discharge GCS, septum pellucidum shift. 0·890 (0·045)
 Flemming´ [18] 2001 Lobar primary supratentorial ICH Tree based model Discharge ICH size, GCS, and time to presentation. 0·921 (0·032)
 Hallevy [25] 2002 Primary supratentorial medically treated ICH Score Discharge Age, limb paresis, level of consciousness, mass effect, hematoma size, and intraventricular extension. 0·897 (0·023)
 Ji [51] 2013 Spontaneous ICH Score 1 year Age, NIHSS, GCS, glucose, infratentorial bleed, ICH volume, and IVH. 0·836 (0·009)
 Lisk [22] 1994 Primary supratentorial < 24 h Equation Discharge or 30 days Age, GCS, hemorrhage volume, and gender.
 Lisk´ [22] 1994 Primary supratentorial < 24 h, GCS > 9, no surgery Equation Discharge or 30 days Age, hemorrhage diameter, and ventricular extension.
 Neidert [11] 2016 AVM related ICH Score Unclear Age, GCS, hematoma size, IVH, AVM size, diffuse nidus, eloquence, and deep venous drainage. 0·842 (0·046)
 Misra [15] 1999 Primary putaminal ICH Equation 3 months GCS, pupillary change, incontinence, and location of hematoma (cortical, subcortical, medial or lateral).
 Mittal [52] 2011 Primary ICH Score Discharge Age, infratentorial, ICH size, GCS, cognitive impairment, and FOUR score.
 Portenoy [20] 1987 Nontraumatic supratentorial spontaneous ICH Equation Unclear GCS, ICH size (index), and IVH spread.
 Poungvarin [55] 2006 Primary ICH Equation Discharge Fever, ICH size > 30, GCS, and IVH spread.
 Rost [57] 2008 Primary ICH Score 3 months Age, GCS, hematoma size, location (infratentorial/deep/lobar), and cognitive impairment. 0·879 (0·017)
 Shah [17] 2005 Thalamic hemorrhage Equation 3 months Posterolateral ICH extension, Canadian Neurological Scale.
 Shaya [19] 2005 Hypertensive supratentorial ICH Score 6 months Focal neurological deficit, hydrocephalus, ICH volume
 Weimar [42] 2009 Patients included in ICH trials Equation 3 months Age, NIHSS, and level of consciousness. 0·805 (0·020)
 Weimar´ [37] 2006 Non-comatose ICH patients Equation 100 days Age, NIHSS. 0·861 (0·029)
 Weimar´´ [43] 2006 Spontaneous ICH Score 100 days Age, NIHSS, and level of consciousness. 0·913 (0·018)
Combined outcome prediction tools
 Cheung [46] 2003 Nontraumatic ICH Score 30 days IVH, subarachnoid extension, pulse pressure, NIHSS, and temperature.
 Cheung´ [46] 2003 Nontraumatic ICH Score 30 days Age, IVH, infratentorial bleed, NIHSS, and hematoma size.
 Cho [14] 2008 Basal ganglia hemorrhage Score 6 months GCS, ICH volume, and IVH. 0·897 (0·033)b
Barthel 0·884a
GOS 0·935ac
 Godoy [62] 2006 Primary ICH Score 30 daysb Age, GCS, Graeb score, ICH volume, and APACHE2 score comorbidities. 0·878
(0·028)b
6 monthsc 0.893 (0·025)c
 Godoy´ [62] 2006 Primary ICH Score 30 daysb Age, GCS, Graeb score, ICH volume, and APACHE2 score comorbidities. 0·869 (0·029)b
6 monthsc 0·895 (0·024)c
 Lei [13] 2016 Cerebral amyloid related ICH Score 3 months Age, IVH, midline shift, and GCS. 0·890
(0·038)b
0·810 (0·031)c
 Stein [16] 2010 Supratentorial deep ICH with secondary IVH Score 30 daysb Age, GCS, hydrocephalus, and ICH volume 0·890 (0.036)b
6 monthsc 0·848 (0·056)c
  1. SE standard error, ICH intracerebral hemorrhage, IVH intraventricular hemorrhage, CT computerized tomography, GCS Glasgow Coma Scale, ANN artificial neural networks, CART classification and regression tree, SVM support vector machine, ICU intensive care unit, CV cardiovascular, NIHSS National Institute of Health Stroke Scale, LDH lactate dehydrogenase, INR International normalized ratio, AVM arteriovenous malformation, GOS Glasgow Outcome Score
  2. aC-statistics were reported but standard errors were not reported, nor were the number of outcomes
  3. bMortality
  4. cFunctional outcome