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Table 3 Specific recommendations, respective quotes, and factors they correspond to as identified in this study

From: The interaction of personal, contextual, and study characteristics and their effect on recruitment and participation of pregnant women in research: a qualitative study in Lebanon

Factors influencing participation Recommendations Quotes
Personal factors
 Previous understanding of the nature and purpose of research in general Exposure of the target population to the importance of research by giving them examples of successful international studies that have resulted in positive change in health and well-being. G1_17: “If you can provide the moms with such information from studies that have been performed abroad, maybe then they will be more encouraged to participate. I think that people are most interested by the baby’s health, so they need something to confirm to them that what you are talking about really has an effect.”
Contextual factors
 Exposure to research through the media Enhancing the visibility of research in the social media, in the form of brochures, and on the institution’s website G2_02:“You could advertise the study on a Facebook page or you could write a small article about the study in a way to encourage women to participate. For example, I personally scroll through Facebook and access pages or articles that might be of interest to me or that might provide me with new information I am interested in.”
Study characteristics
 Burden of the study Going beyond academic institutions, where often the same patients receive frequent invitations to participate in research, by targeting community settings G3_07:“In our department there are a lot of ongoing studies and that’s why I think they become overwhelmed with so many study requests. Every patient who comes to deliver will be on 2 or 3 studies at least”
  Spreading the data collection visits over a wider timeline G1_12: “It’s okay if it is just for 30 min every 2 weeks or every month its ok.”
  Collecting data through email or via phone rather than meeting in person G1_12:“If it’s just a phone call she might take it when her baby is sleeping, but I imagine that leaving her baby at home and going somewhere for the sake of the study is not possible.”
G1_20: “Do you have to do it in person, can’t you by email to fill a questionnaire”
Incentives Tailoring incentives to the population being studied G3_12: “If you go down to the Outpatient Department, where patients pay 5000 LL or 10 000LL to be seen and you tell them I will give you fifty dollars incentive, they will say yes I could use the fifty dollars. But if you come here to the private clinics and she is already paying 100$ to see me and you tell her you know what we are going to give an incentive of fifty dollars she will tell you I don’t care. You see what I mean?”
Research interpersonal skills and physician endorsement to participate Enhancing communication between principal investigators, research assistants and physicians G3_01: “I think that the people who are actually engaged in the study should really sit together and talk and discuss it a bit more. We didn’t really get the chance to convey our opinion about the study and what is actually happening. Maybe field workers don’t really have the experience that other people have, but we are on the field and we encounter the obstacles and the challenges. It is us who are in contact with the participants. So maybe we are a bit more aware of what’s wrong on field. Because on paper it is not as nice as on field; it doesn’t go as smoothly as it should. So I think more often we should have more meeting with the people involved in the study to simply just discuss things in more details and probably come up with better solutions to boost a little bit more the recruitment.”
  Improving physician’s involvement in recruiting patients by flagging eligible patient’s record or sending frequent reminders about the study G3_07: “It would good if they [nurses] put a yellow mark in order to know that this is potential case for the study”
G3_10: “Emails would help as a constant reminder, yes it’s good that physicians could approach the patients as a starting point, so to be reminded whether by email or phone calls at times we can maybe call the physicians and just remind them”