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Table 5 Age-, gender- and social-class-related BSI-18 differences

From: Norm values and psychometric properties of the brief symptom inventory-18 regarding individuals between the ages of 60 and 95

BSI-18 Scales Somatization Depression Anxiety General Symptom Index
Age-related differences
 60–64 (N = 192) 1.97 ± 2.78 1.98 ± 3.12 1.74 ± 2.96 5.70 ± 8.01
 65–69 (N = 221) 1.89 ± 2.65 1.56 ± 2.90 1.40 ± 2.47 4.85 ± 7.15
 70–74 (N = 219) 2.25 ± 2.98 1.98 ± 3.25 1.31 ± 2.36 5.54 ± 7.71
 75–79 (N = 133) 2.53 ± 3.15 2.70 ± 3.86 1.71 ± 2.92 6.93 ± 8.65
  ≥ 80 (N = 119) 3.89 ± 3.75 2.43 ± 3.84 1.82 ± 3.14 8.14 ± 9.38
F, df, p-value, effect size F = 10.03, p < .0001, η2 = .04 F = 2.89, p < .02, η2 = .01 F = 1.24, p < .29 F = 3.94, p < .004, η2 = .02
Gender-related differences
 Male (N = 402) 2.34 ± 2.99 1.78 ± 3.22 1.42 ± 2.72 5.54 ± 7.90
 Female (N = 482) 2.38 ± 3.13 2.27 ± 3.42 1.66 ± 2.73 6.31 ± 8.23
 Sum (N = 884) 2.36 ± 3.07 2.04 ± 3.34 1.55 ± 2.72 5.96 ± 8.08
t, p-value t = −0.20 t = −2.18, p < .03 t = −1.29, p <,20 t = −1.41, p < .16
Social-class-related differences
 Lower class (N = 427) 2.80 ± 3.38 2.52 ± 3.73 1.83 ± 3.10 7.15 ± 9.06
 Middle class (N = 336) 2.04 ± 2.76 1.69 ± 3.03 1.37 ± 2.46 5.09 ± 7.34
 Upper class (N = 121) 1.72 ± 2.46 1.36 ± 2.35 1.11 ± 1.71 4.18 ± 5.35
F, p-value, effect size F = 9.15, p < .0001, η2 = .02 F = 8.98, p < .0001, η2 = .02 F = 4.64, p < .01, η2 = .01 F = 9.71, p < .0001, η2 = .02