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Table 2 Estimated effect of LDL cholesterol levels on systolic blood pressure, using different methods to deal with unmeasured confounding

From: Adjustment for unmeasured confounding through informative priors for the confounder-outcome relation

  Referencea Frequentist analysis Bayesian analysis - 1 Bayesian analysis - 2
Prior for relation BMI-SBPb N(μ = 0.32, τ = 1000) N(μ =0.77, τ = 100)
Estimated effect of LDL on SBPb 1.24 (0.53) 1.03 (0.53) 1.06 (0.53) 1.05 (0.54)
Estimated effect of BMI on SBPb 0.32 (0.15) 0.44 (0.14) 0.33 (0.03) 0.66 (0.08)
  1. Figures represent estimates (SE) of the estimated relations, or the mean (standard deviation) of the posterior distributions. In all analyses (except for the reference), BMI was considered a measured confounder of the LDL-SBP relation, while blood glucose level was considered unmeasured confounder. Bayesian analysis 1 and Bayesian analysis 2 differ in the mean and precision of the prior distribution of the relation between BMI and SBP
  2. aThe reference is based on the full model, i.e., is adjusted for BMI and blood glucose levels
  3. bSBP was measured in mmHg, LDL in mmol/l, and BMI in kg/m2