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Table 3 Association between the GALI and ADL/IADL difficulties in TLSA (2015), Taiwan

From: Validation of the global activity limitation indicator in Taiwan

  Model 1 Model 2 Model 3
OR 95% CI OR 95% CI OR 95% CI
Age 1.05 (1.04–1.06) 1.05 (1.04–1.06) 1.05 (1.04–1.06)
Sex 0.87 (0.75–1.01) 0.92 (0.78–1.07) 1.00 (0.85–1.17)
Education    1.39 (1.14–1.69) 1.35 (1.11–1.65)
ADL (1+ vs 0) 35.89 (21.10–61.03) 35.09 (20.52–60.00) 26.61 (15.49–45.70)
CES-D      4.53 (3.51–5.86)
Age 1.02 (1.01–1.03) 1.01 (1.00–1.02) 1.02 (1.00–1.03)
Sex 1.06 (0.90–1.25) 1.11 (0.94–1.32) 1.18 (1.00–1.39)
Education    1.43 (1.16–1.75) 1.40 (1.14–1.71)
IADL (1+ vs 0) 13.37 (10.09–17.71) 13.29 (10.03–17.61) 10.92 (8.17–14.60)
CES-D      3.46 (2.58–4.64)
  1. Model 1 adjusted for age and sex (male/female)
  2. Model 2 adjusted for age, sex (male/female) and education level (elementary school or less vs. junior high school or above)
  3. Model 3 adjusted for age, sex (male/female), education level (elementary school or less vs. junior high school or above) and CES-D groups (low vs. high depressive symptoms)
  4. GALI, Global Activity Limitation Indicator; ADL, activities of daily living; IADL, instrumental activities of daily living; TLSA, Taiwan Longitudinal Survey on Aging