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Table 2 Computed sample size, estimated power, and simulated power for Normal predictors with {βI, βS} = {0.3, 1.3}, {βI0, βS0} = {0, 1}, σ2 = 1, Type I error α = 0.05, and nominal power 1 – β = 0.90

From: Sample size calculations for model validation in linear regression analysis

μX \( {\sigma}_X^2 \) N Simulated power Exact approach Approximate method
Simulated power Error Simulated power Error
0 0.5 99 0.9049 0.9025 −0.0024 0.7524 −0.1525
1 76 0.8997 0.9030 0.0033 0.6257 −0.2740
2 53 0.9058 0.9050 −0.0008 0.4602 −0.4456
0.5 0.5 56 0.9029 0.9055 0.0026 0.8430 −0.0599
1 48 0.8993 0.9024 0.0031 0.7756 −0.1237
2 38 0.8997 0.9006 0.0009 0.6604 −0.2393
1 0.5 35 0.9015 0.9013 −0.0002 0.8682 −0.0333
1 33 0.9075 0.9089 0.0014 0.8445 −0.0630
2 28 0.8993 0.9016 0.0023 0.7689 −0.1304