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Table 4 Other HIV risk factor responses by ZEST study population

From: The influence of interviewers on survey responses among female sex workers in Zambia

  Univariate   Bivariate regression a
N % / Median [IQR] ICC b Male
IVR
Female
IVR
p-value
Any physical abuse as child (age < 15) 964 61.0% 29.4% 74.0% 52.4% 0.46
Any physical abuse as adult (age 15+) 965 64.8% 19.9% 76.2% 54.4% 0.26
 Of which, from SWC 625 25.0% 27.6% 17.7% 28.8% 0.65
Any physical abuse in past 12 m 964 51.1% 20.0% 49.8% 55.7% 0.87
 Of which, from SWC 494 53.6% 36.6% 36.6% 79.4% 0.02
 Of which, from partner 520 65.6% 35.1% 80.8% 42.4% 0.06
Any sexual abuse as child (age < 15) 963 35.5% 19.7% 36.9% 32.7% 0.89
Any adult sexual abuse (age 15+) 965 44.7% 8.6% 45.6% 43.4% 0.94
 Of which, from SWC 431 32.0% 10.8% 28.0% 36.3% 0.67
Any sexual abuse in past 12 m 964 46.6% 23.6% 41.9% 54.1% 0.69
 Of which, from SWC 450 60.4% 39.1% 41.9% 83.7% 0.001
 Of which, from partner 450 42.4% 43.7% 53.2% 22.8% 0.46
Had sex because afraid in past 12 m 965 60.7% 29.8% 55.8% 70.1% 0.58
 Of which, with SWC 586 59.0% 37.9% 45.5% 76.5% 0.04
 Of which, with partner 586 44.7% 37.9% 51.8% 29.0% 0.55
Frequency of alcohol consumption 963      0.76
 Never   9.7%   9.3% 6.8%  
 Monthly or less   4.6%   4.5% 3.5%  
 2–4 times/month   10.8%   11.2% 9.1%  
 2–3 times/week   28.6%   31.5% 29.0%  
 4+ times/week   46.4%   43.5% 51.7%  
Frequency of having ≥6 drinks in a night 869      0.99
 Never   4.3%   3.3% 3.2%  
 Monthly or less   5.5%   4.5% 4.5%  
 2–4 times/month   7.4%   6.5% 6.4%  
 2–3 times/week   40.7%   44.2% 44.0%  
 4+ times/week   42.1%   41.4% 41.8%  
Taken any intoxicating substance in past 12 months 963 28.3% 15.7% 24.4% 28.5% 0.87
Taken any non-prescription injected drugs in the past 12 m 963 4.0% 33.1% 1.2% 5.7% 0.19
Ever harassed by police 963 31.4% 4.1% 28.7% 33.9% 0.67
Ever arrested/incarcerated 964 28.5% 11.1% 21.4% 36.3% 0.26
Stood up to someone to help a fellow FSW in past 12 m 965 0.0% 24.3% 83.1% 83.8% 0.99
Attended a public event where identifiable as FSW in past 12 m 964 41.5% 29.9% 35.6% 50.0% 0.67
Feels strong sense of unity with FSWs in general 963 20.4%   18.7% 16.9% 0.94
PHQ-9 raw score (range 0 to 27) 930 9 [6–13] 37.0% 9.4 10.7 0.79
HIV stigma scale raw score (range 0–9) 946 1 [0–1] 9.0% 1.0 0.6 0.38
Adapted FSSQ scale raw score (range 0–30) 956 8 [3–13] 27.5% 8.6 9.3 0.89
Generalized self-efficacy raw score (range 10–40) 932 32.5 [27–38] 34.5% 30.7 32.8 0.67
  1. 12 m 12 months, FSSQ Duke-UNC Functional Social Support Questionnaire, FSW female sex worker, ICC Intraclass Correlation Coefficient, IQR inter-quartile range, IVR interviewer, PHQ-9 Patient Health Questionnaire-9, SWC sex work client
  2. a All bivariate regressions included study site fixed effects and interviewer random intercepts. Values for male and female IVR are marginal predicted values based on regression coefficients. b ICC is the proportion of all variance in a model without interviewer gender attributable to variation in interviewer identity; not available for Poisson or ordered logistic models.. P-value is for a χ2 test, adjusted for multiple testing across all results shown in Tables 1, 2, 3 and 4 using the Benjamini-Hochberg method. P-values <0.05 shown in bold