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Table 1 Pre vs Post-Intervention Change in DPU, DPMO, Yield and SIGMA

From: Reducing defects in the datasets of clinical research studies: conformance with data quality metrics

Measures Pre-Intervention
n = 45
Post-Intervention
n = 21
Distribution of defects
 Zero defects 6 (13.3) 17 (81)
 One defect 8 (17.7) 2 (9.5)
 Two or more defects 31 (69) 2 (9.5)
DPU (defects per unit) 2.33 0.57
DPMO (defects per million opportunities) 194,444.44 47,619.04
Yield 80.55 95.23
SIGMA 2.4 3.2
  Pre-intervention datasets Post-intervention datasets
  Not Defective Defective Not Defective Defective
Data Capturing Points n (%)
 Single data capturing point (Cross-Sectional studies) 6 (28.6) 15 (71.4) 8 (66.7) 4 (33.3)
 Multiple data capturing points (Longitudinal studies) 0 24 (100)* 9 (100) 0
Research Coordinator on board n (%)
 No 5 (17.9) 23 (82.1) 7 (63.60) 4 (36.4)
 Yes 1 (5.9) 16 (94.1) 10 (100) 0
Principal Investigators (PIs) Requesting Data Analysis n(%)
 Returning PIs 3 (30) 7 (70) 14 (100) 0
 New PIs 3 (8.6) 32 (91.4) 3 (42.9) 4 (57.1)**
  1. Longitudinal studies = Cohort/Case-Control/Randomized controlled trials (RCT)
  2. The reported percentage is row percentage
  3. p -value is based on Fisher's exact test
  4. * p = 0.007
  5. **p = 0.006