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Table 1 Characteristics of LIFE-Adult participants, the Leipzig population, and short questionnaire participants by sex and age

From: Evaluating selection bias in a population-based cohort study with low baseline participation: the LIFE-Adult-Study

  Men Women
Age, years 40 to 49 50 to 59 60 to 69 70 to 79 40 to 49 50 to 59 60 to 69 70 to 79
Married, %
 LIFE-Adult participants 48.8 65.3 80.7 85.3 52.7 65.8 68.1 55.5
 Leipzig population 44.7 60.5 69.7 84.6 49.2 59.2 60.2 57.5
 SQ participants 48.2 60.2 73.5 81.9 56.3 60.5 66.0 55.9
Highly educated, %
 LIFE-Adult participants
  1st stage tertiary education 46.6 50.6 62.1 73.2 51.0 51.5 47.7 43.7
  Hochschulreifea 34.7 32.6 34.8 34.8 34.7 31.4 27.4 21.1
 Leipzig population
  1st stage tertiary education 35.4 34.6 (40.2) 56.0 45.5 41.1 35.3 36.8
 SQ participants
  Hochschulreifea 32.4 24.8 27.1 27.8 33.2 26.9 25.2 16.5
Employed, %
 LIFE-Adult participants 90.7 84.0 31.3 4.2 90.9 83.9 26.1 2.2
 Leipzig population 86.2 79.6 (38.9) / 84.6 75.7 (24.9) /
 SQ participants 85.2 76.6 23.9 2.9 83.3 75.4 17.2 1.9
Current nonsmoker, %
 LIFE-Adult participants
  Nonsmokers of tobacco 66.1 68.7 82.2 93.0 71.1 71.4 87.0 94.6
  Nonsmokers of cigarettes 67.4 70.0 83.9 94.4 71.4 71.7 87.2 94.6
 Leipzig population
  Nonsmokers of tobacco 57.7 63.1 73.6 92.1 70.0 74.7 85.0 97.0
 SQ participants
  Nonsmokers of cigarettes 59.8 62.3 75.8 87.5 67.3 67.1 86.0 92.9
Poor physical condition, %
  LIFE-Adult participants 2.2 3.7 4.6 4.6 3.0 4.2 5.0 6.0
  SQ participants 2.7 5.3 6.6 11.7 3.0 3.6 4.9 9.9
Myocardial infarction, %
 LIFE-Adult participants 0.5 2.5 5.2 9.2 0.1 0.9 1.8 2.6
 SQ participants 0.7 4.9 10.0 13.1 0.7 1.1 2.5 4.4
Stroke, %
 LIFE-Adult participants 0.7 2.1 3.4 5.9 0.4 1.9 2.2 3.4
 SQ participants 0.8 2.3 5.8 9.3 0.2 2.3 3.3 5.1
Diabetes, %
 LIFE-Adult participants 3.4 9.7 20.5 23.0 1.8 6.3 13.4 19.8
 SQ participants 6.0 13.2 30.1 34.7 3.5 12.7 21.0 28.1
Cancer, %
 LIFE-Adult participants 2.2 4.6 12.1 24.0 6.7 8.2 13.9 18.9
 SQ participants 2.9 7.1 10.8 21.5 4.8 10.1 14.7 18.0
  1. Data for the Leipzig population: Percentages corresponding to less than 7000 cases are marked by “/”, percentages corresponding to less than 10,000 cases are given in parenthesis. aHochschulreife = technical college or university entrance qualification, SQ = short questionnaire