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Table 2 Associations of individuals’ characteristics with study participation: LIFE-Adult participants versus short questionnaire participants

From: Evaluating selection bias in a population-based cohort study with low baseline participation: the LIFE-Adult-Study

  Men Women
  Model 1 Model 2 Model 3 Model 1 Model 2 Model 3
Aged 40 to 44 y Reference    Reference   
Aged 45 to 49 y 1.11 (0.92–1.35) 1.14 (0.96–1.36)
Aged 50 to 54 y 0.99 (0.81–1.21) 1.16 (0.97–1.39)
Aged 55 to 59 y 0.81 (0.67–0.99) 1.01 (0.84–1.21)
Aged 60 to 64 y 0.80 (0.66–0.97) 1.07 (0.90–1.28)
Aged 65 to 69 y 0.85 (0.70–1.03) 0.80 (0.67–0.96)
Aged 70 to 74 y 0.69 (0.58–0.83) 0.68 (0.58–0.81)
Aged 75 to 79 y 0.53 (0.43–0.65) 0.42 (0.35–0.51)
POS/Realschulea Reference Reference   Reference Reference  
Hochschulreifea 1.13 (1.01–1.26) 1.16 (1.04–1.29) 1.06 (0.95–1.18) 1.07 (0.96–1.19)
Hauptschulea 0.40 (0.35–0.47) 0.45 (0.38–0.53) 0.45 (0.39–0.52) 0.56 (0.48–0.66)
Other/no qualification 0.56 (0.42–0.76) 0.58 (0.42–0.78) 0.33 (0.24–0.45) 0.35 (0.25–0.48)
Married 1.08 (0.98–1.20) 1.25 (1.12–1.39) 1.20 (1.08–1.34) 1.04 (0.95–1.14) 1.02 (0.93–1.12) 1.00 (0.91–1.10)
Employed 1.61 (1.47–1.78) 1.56 (1.36–1.78) 1.42 (1.24–1.64) 1.79 (1.64–1.96) 1.63 (1.43–1.86) 1.53 (1.34–1.75)
Never smokerb Reference Reference Reference Reference Reference Reference
Former smokerb 0.90 (0.80–1.00) 0.94 (0.84–1.05) 0.98 (0.87–1.10) 1.33 (1.18–1.50) 1.19 (1.05–1.34) 1.19 (1.05–1.34)
Current smokerb 0.72 (0.63–0.81) 0.62 (0.54–0.70) 0.69 (0.60–0.79) 1.07 (0.95–1.20) 0.86 (0.76–0.98) 0.88 (0.77–1.00)
Poor physical condition 0.50 (0.40–0.62) 0.55 (0.44–0.69) 0.60 (0.48–0.75) 0.79 (0.64–0.97) 0.91 (0.73–1.12) 0.99 (0.79–1.22)
Myocardial infarction 0.50 (0.40–0.61) 0.56 (0.46–0.70) 0.57 (0.46–0.70) 0.50 (0.36–0.72) 0.61 (0.43–0.87) 0.65 (0.46–0.94)
Stroke 0.58 (0.46–0.75) 0.67 (0.52–0.86) 0.68 (0.53–0.88) 0.61 (0.45–0.83) 0.71 (0.52–0.96) 0.79 (0.58–1.09)
Diabetes 0.55 (0.48–0.62) 0.60 (0.52–0.68) 0.62 (0.54–0.71) 0.50 (0.44–0.58) 0.58 (0.51–0.67) 0.62 (0.53–0.71)
Cancer 0.87 (0.75–1.01) 1.03 (0.88–1.20) 1.01 (0.86–1.19) 0.91 (0.79–1.04) 1.02 (0.88–1.17) 1.02 (0.88–1.18)
  1. Association measures are odds ratios (95% confidence limits). The dependent variable is participation in LIFE-Adult vs. participation in the short questioning. Model 1: crude association of each analysis variable with study participation, model 2: adjustment for age (40 to 44, 45 to 54, 55 to 64, 65 to 69, 70 to 74, 75 to 79 years), model 3: adjustment for age and school education (Hauptschule, POS/Realschule, Hochschulreife, other/no qualification). For dichotomous variables, the reference category is not shown. Example of interpretation: In male persons with the diagnosis of a myocardial infarction, the odds of being LIFE-Adult participant is 0.50 times as big as the odds of those without a diagnosis of myocardial infarction (model 1)
  2. aSchool qualification: Hauptschule = certificate of primary education, POS/Realschule = certificate of polytechnic secondary school/secondary education, Hochschulreife = technical college or university entrance qualification. bSmoking status refers to cigarette smoking. y = years