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Table 1 Steps in developing base case composite indicator with alternative methods

From: Quality of maternal obstetric and neonatal care in low-income countries: development of a composite index

1. Theoretical Framework: Quality Matrix
2. Metric Selection: Literature Review/Expert Opinion
3. Missing data imputation: imputation by mode for binary variables or mean for continuous variables
4. Initial Data Analysis: Review outliers/directionality
Indicators within cells Base Case Alternative
5a. Normalization: Binary categorization of non-binary cell indicators A. Rescaling of non-binary cell indicators (Min-max)
5b. Weighting: Equal weighting
5c. Aggregation: Additive linear aggregation of indicator scores B. Geometric aggregation of indicator scores
Cells within matrix Base Case Alternative
6a. Normalization: Rescaling of cell scores (Min-max) C. Standardization of cell scores (Z-scores)
6b. Weighting: Equal weighting
6c. Aggregation: Additive linear aggregation of cell scores D. Geometric aggregation
of cell scores
7. Uncertainty/Sensitivity Analysis: comparison base case against alternative methods
8. Deconstruction: explore individual indicators contribution to composite score