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Table 4 Spearman’s correlation and Cronbach’s alpha of each item with the PMQ score (between the 23 and 26 items)

From: Cross-cultural adaptation of the Pain Medication Questionnaire for use in Brazil

Items Correlation (23) Alpha if the item was not detected (26) Alpha if the item was detected (23) Increase (%)
P1 - I believe I am receiving enough medication to relieve my pain.b 0.802a 0.516 0.641 19.50%
P2 - My doctor spends enough time talking to me about my pain medication during appointments. b −0.072 0.651 0.736 11.55%
P3 - I believe I would feel better with a higher dosage of my pain medication. 0.653a 0.576 0.687 16.16%
P4 - In the past, I have had some difficulty getting the medication I need from my doctor(s). 0.348a 0.615 0.717 14.23%
P7 –Family members seem to think that I may be too dependent on my pain medication. 0.485a 0.581 0.686 15.31%
P9 - At times, I take pain medication when I feel anxious and sad, or when I need help sleeping. 0.370a 0.585 0.69 15.22%
P10 – At times, I drink alcohol to help control my pain. 0.284 0.605 0.703 13.94%
P11 – My pain medication makes it hard for me to think clearly sometimes. 0.308 0.597 0.693 13.85%
P12 – I find it necessary to go to the emergency room to get treatment for my pain. 0.586a 0.582 0.685 15.04%
P13 – My pain medication makes me nauseated and constipated sometimes. 0.1 0.627 0.719 12.80%
P14 – At times, I need to borrow pain medication from friends or family to get relief. 0.387a 0.582 0.686 15.16%
P15 – I get pain medication from more than one doctor in order to have enough medication for my pain. 0.534a 0.581 0.687 15.43%
P16 – At times, I think I may be too dependent on my pain medication. 0.434a 0.578 0.687 15.87%
P17 – To help me out, family members have obtained pain medications for me from their own doctors. 0.443a 0.581 0.687 15.43%
P18 – At times, I need to take pain medication more often than it is prescribed in order to relieve my pain. 0.492a 0.557 0.672 17.11%
P19 – I save my unused pain medication I have in case I need it later. −0.132 0.629 0.723 13.00%
P20 – I find it helpful to call my doctor or clinic to talk about how my pain medication is working. 0.177 0.598 0.702 14.81%
P21 – At times, I run out of pain medication early and have to call my doctor for refills. 0.566a 0.568 0.679 16.35%
P22 – I find it useful to take additional medications (such as sedatives) to help my pain medication work better. 0.142 0.602 0.713 15.57%
P23 – How many painful conditions (injured body parts or illnesses) do you have? 0.075 0.623 0.721 13.59%
P24 – How many times in the past year have you asked your doctor to increase your prescribed dosage of pain medication in order to get relief? 0.326a 0.594 0.699 15.02%
P25 – How many times in the past year have you run out of pain medication early and had to request an early refill? 0.623a 0.549 0.666 17.57%
P26 – How many times in the past year have you accidentally misplaced your prescription for pain medication and had to ask for another? 0.418a 0.59 0.692 14.74%
  1. Source: the authors
  2. aStatistically different from zero
  3. bThe scale scores were inverted