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Table 2 Illustration of the approximations on the INTERSTROKE dataset. For binary risk factors, \( {\hat{\beta}}^{ave}=\mathit{\log}\left(\hat{OR}\right) \), for multicategory risk factors \( {\hat{\beta}}^{ave} \) is a kind of weighted average log odds ratio summarizing the increase in risk of non-reference levels of the risk factor compared to the reference level. Confidence intervals for exact PAF are given at 99% level and calculated using Bootstrap

From: Graphical comparisons of relative disease burden across multiple risk factors

Risk factor \( {\hat{\beta}}^{ave}\sim \mathit{\log}\left(\hat{OR}\right) \) \( {e}^{{\hat{\beta}}^{ave}}\sim \hat{OR} \) prevalence exposure in controls Approximate
PAF: [7]
Exact calculation
PAF: [6]
High blood pressure (Y/N) 1.093 2.98 47.4% 51.8% 47.9% (45.1–50.6)
Lack of physical activity 0.501 1.65 83.7% 41.9% 35.5% (27.7–44.7)
ApoA, ApoB ratio (in tertiles) 0.428 1.53 66.9% 28.6% 26.9% (22.2–31.9)
Diet score (in tertiles) 0.378 1.46 67.0% 25.3% 23.0% (18.2–28.9)
Waist hip ratio (in tertiles) 0.294 1.34 67.0% 19.7% 18.8% (13.3–25.3)
Smoking (Y/N) 0.513 1.67 22.4% 11.5% 12.4% (10.2–14.9)
Cardiac causes (Y/N) 1.156 3.18 4.9% 5.7% 9.1% (8.0–10.2)
Frequency of alcohol consumption (3 levels) 0.186 1.20 27.7% 5.2% 5.9% (3.4–9.7)
Global stress (Y/N) 0.301 1.35 14.4% 4.3% 5.0% (2.6–7.3)
Diabetes (Y/N) 0.148 1.16 12.9% 1.9% 2.4% (0.1–4.9)