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Table 3 Meta-analysed effects of healthy ageing and self-rated health on mortality, controlling sequentially for sociodemographic and health conditions

From: Healthy ageing and the prediction of mortality and incidence dependence in low- and middle- income countries: a 10/66 population-based cohort study

Hazard Ratios (HR) and 95%CI
Healthy AgeingQ1 quintileQ2 quintileQ3 quintileQ4 quintileQ5 quintile
 Model 16.89 (5.81–8.17)2.61 (2.16–3.14)1.89 (1.55–2.29)1.26 (1.02–1.56)reference
I2 = 53.4%, p = 0.057I2 = 0.0%, p = 0.431I2 = 0.0%, p = 0.615I2 = 29.8%, p = 0.212
 Model 24.23 (3.48–5.13)2.03 (1.67–2.48)1.60 (1.31–1.95)1.16 (0.94–1.44)reference
I2 = 17.1%, p = 0.304I2 = 0.0%, p = 0.585I2 = 0.0%, p = 0.714I2 = 22.6%, p = 0.264
 Model 33.25 (2.63–4.02)1.88 (1.53–2.30)1.56 (1.27–1.91)1.15 (0.93–1.43)reference
I2 = 28.7%, p = 0.220I2 = 0.0%, p = 0.524I2 = 0.0%, p = 0.726I2 = 26.0%, p = 0.239
Self-rated healthvery lowlowmoderategoodvery good
 Model 14.65 (3.53–6.13)2.36 (1.94–2.88)1.33 (1.14–1.55)1.06 (0.91–1.25)reference
I2 = 68.0%, p = 0.008I2 = 73.5%, p = 0.002I2 = 30.4%, p = 0.207I2 = 57.0%, p = 0.040
 Model 24.12 (3.07–5.54)2.09 (1.71–2.57)1.24 (1.06–1.45)0.99 (0.85–1.17)reference
I2 = 64.6%, p = 0.015I2 = 74.5%, p = 0.001I2 = 61.7%, p = 0.023I2 = 67.6%, p = 0.009
 Model 32.78 (2.05–3.76)1.68 (1.35–2.09)1.16 (0.98–1.36)0.98 (0.83–1.15)reference
I2 = 55.0%, p = 0.049I2 = 73.9%, p = 0.002I2 = 51.3%, p = 0.068I2 = 69.9%, p = 0.005
  1. HR hazard rate, CI confidence intervals, Q1: lowest level of healthy ageing; Q5: highest level of healthy ageing; Model 1: no adjustments; Model 2: adjusted for age, sex, education level, number of assets; Model 3: Model 2 + physical impairments, stroke, depression, dementia