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Table 4 Meta-analysed effects of healthy ageing and self-rated health on incident dependence, controlling sequentially for sociodemographic and health conditions

From: Healthy ageing and the prediction of mortality and incidence dependence in low- and middle- income countries: a 10/66 population-based cohort study

Incident dependence sub-HR (95% CI)
Healthy AgeingQ1 quintileQ2 quintileQ3 quintileQ4 quintileQ5 quintile
 Model 110.61 (8.38–13.43)4.38 (3.42–5.61)2.85 (2.20–3.68)1.86 (1.42–2.45)reference
I2 = 0.0%, p = 0.468I2 = 0.0%, p = 0.696I2 = 0.0%, p = 0.6630.0%, p = 0.670
 Model 27.76 (6.04–9.97)3.63 (2.80–4.70)2.52 (1.94–3.27)1.72 (1.30–2.27)reference
I2 = 0.0%, p = 0.949I2 = 0.0%, p = 0.915I2 = 0.0%, p = 0.904I2 = 0.0%, p = 0.830
 Model 35.21 (4.02–6.75)3.53 (2.71–4.59)2.60 (2.00–3.35)1.74 (1.32–2.29)reference
I2 = 0.0%, p = 0.735I2 = 0.0%, p = 0.819I2 = 0.0%, p = 0.889I2 = 0.0%, p = 0.799
Self-rated healthvery lowlowmoderategoodvery good
 Model 12.18 (1.30–3.64)2.33 (1.84–2.94)1.54 (1.30–1.83)1.14 (0.96–1.35)reference
I2 = 47.4%, p = 0.107I2 = 65.1%, p = 0.014I2 = 54.6%, p = 0.051I2 = 24.1%, p = 0.253
 Model 21.77 (0.99–3.18)2.03 (1.60–2.57)1.37 (1.15–1.62)1.02 (0.85–1.22)reference
I2 = 1.3%, p = 0.399I2 = 54.6%, p = 0.051I2 = 59.2%, p = 0.031I2 = 39.6%, p = 0.141
 Model 31.51 (0.77–2.94)1.70 (1.29–2.24)1.29 (1.07–1.55)1.01 (0.84–1.21)reference
I2 = 0.0%, p = 0.529I2 = 0.0%, p = 0.616I2 = 19.7%, p = 0.285I2 = 4.1%, p = 0.390
  1. sub-HR sub-hazard rates of competing risk analysis, CI confidence intervals, Q1: lowest level of healthy ageing; Q5: highest level of healthy ageing; Model 1: no adjustments; Model 2: adjusted for age, sex, education level, number of assets; Model 3: Model 2 + physical impairments, stroke, depression, dementia