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Table 6 Performance measures of complete case and maximum likelihood estimator for handling 45% missingness in recurrences for individuals treated with artemether-lumefantrine in estimating day 28 cured proportion

From: Dealing with indeterminate outcomes in antimalarial drug efficacy trials: a comparison between complete case analysis, multiple imputation and inverse probability weighting

Full data estimate of day 28 cure proportion (SE) = 0.9637 (0.1561) a
  Complete Case analysis Maximum Likelihood Estimator
Mechanism 1
 Bias 1.3724 (0.0145) 0.0000 (0.0075)
 Relative Bias 1.42% -0.00%
 Model based SE 0.2153 (0.0007) 0.2100 (0.0008)
 Empirical SE 0.2177 (0.005) 0.2159 (0.0048)
 Coverage 21.4% (1.3%) 93.1% (0.8%)
 RMSE b 0.5503 (0.0077) 0.2169 (0.0022)
Mechanism 2a (Weak scenario)
 Bias 1.4093 (0.0149) -0.0004 (0.0077)
 Relative Bias 1.46% -0.04%
 Model based SE 0.2179(0.0008) 0.2123 (0.0008)
 Empirical SE 0.2227 (0.0049) 0.2185 (0.0049)
 Coverage 19.2% (1.2%) 93.4% (0.8%)
 RMSE b 0.5686 (0.0082) 0.2186 (0.0023)
Mechanism 2b (Strong scenario)
 Bias 1.4437 (0.0152) -0.0009 (0.0079)
 Relative Bias 1.50% -0.09%
 Model based SE 0.2202 (0.0008) 0.2143 (0.0008)
 Empirical SE 0.2248 (0.0050) 0.2204 (0.0049)
 Coverage 17.2% (1.2%) 93.8% (0.8%)
 RMSE b 0.5844 (0.0084) 0.2203 (0.0023)
  1. RMSE Root Mean Squared Error, AL artemether-lumefantrine, AS-AQ artesunate-amodiaquine, DP dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine
  2. a The “true” estimates of cured proportion (total cured/total number of patients treated) before missingness was induced. Those with new infections were counted as cured. The variance for cured proportion (p) for a total number of patients (n) was calculated as p(1 − p)/n. The variance was converted to the cloglog scale using the equation presented in Additional file 1, Section C.
  3. b Monte Carlo error for the RMSE presented on mean squared error scale. Monte Carlo Standard Errors shown in parentheses