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Table 6 Performance measures of complete case and maximum likelihood estimator for handling 45% missingness in recurrences for individuals treated with artemether-lumefantrine in estimating day 28 cured proportion

From: Dealing with indeterminate outcomes in antimalarial drug efficacy trials: a comparison between complete case analysis, multiple imputation and inverse probability weighting

Full data estimate of day 28 cure proportion (SE) = 0.9637 (0.1561) a
 Complete Case analysisMaximum Likelihood Estimator
Mechanism 1
 Bias1.3724 (0.0145)0.0000 (0.0075)
 Relative Bias1.42%-0.00%
 Model based SE0.2153 (0.0007)0.2100 (0.0008)
 Empirical SE0.2177 (0.005)0.2159 (0.0048)
 Coverage21.4% (1.3%)93.1% (0.8%)
 RMSE b0.5503 (0.0077)0.2169 (0.0022)
Mechanism 2a (Weak scenario)
 Bias1.4093 (0.0149)-0.0004 (0.0077)
 Relative Bias1.46%-0.04%
 Model based SE0.2179(0.0008)0.2123 (0.0008)
 Empirical SE0.2227 (0.0049)0.2185 (0.0049)
 Coverage19.2% (1.2%)93.4% (0.8%)
 RMSE b0.5686 (0.0082)0.2186 (0.0023)
Mechanism 2b (Strong scenario)
 Bias1.4437 (0.0152)-0.0009 (0.0079)
 Relative Bias1.50%-0.09%
 Model based SE0.2202 (0.0008)0.2143 (0.0008)
 Empirical SE0.2248 (0.0050)0.2204 (0.0049)
 Coverage17.2% (1.2%)93.8% (0.8%)
 RMSE b0.5844 (0.0084)0.2203 (0.0023)
  1. RMSE Root Mean Squared Error, AL artemether-lumefantrine, AS-AQ artesunate-amodiaquine, DP dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine
  2. a The “true” estimates of cured proportion (total cured/total number of patients treated) before missingness was induced. Those with new infections were counted as cured. The variance for cured proportion (p) for a total number of patients (n) was calculated as p(1 − p)/n. The variance was converted to the cloglog scale using the equation presented in Additional file 1, Section C.
  3. b Monte Carlo error for the RMSE presented on mean squared error scale. Monte Carlo Standard Errors shown in parentheses