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Table 1 Parameter values, taken from a dataset of patients with Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD), used to simulate the baseline covariates. BMI, Body Mass Index; TimeCOPD, Time since diagnosis of COPD; SD, Standard Deviation

From: Assessing causal treatment effect estimation when using large observational datasets

Baseline Covariate Mean (SD) Min – Max Proportion (%)
BMI 25.62 (4.61) 16.00–40.00
Hospitalisation (Hosp = 1)
 Healthy 40.00
 Overweight 36.00
 Obese 26.70
TimeCOPD
 No admission, Healthy 9.59 (9.21) 0.10–35.00
 No admission, Overweight 9.13 (8.00) 0.10–30.00
 No admission, Obese 7.25 (9.92) 0.10–25.00
 Admission(s), Healthy 8.20 (8.03) 0.10–30.00
 Admission(s), Overweight 3.21 (2.47) 0.10–10.00
 Admission(s), Obese 5.67 (3.87) 0.10–15.00
Sputum Type (Z = 1) 77.65