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Table 1 Parameter values, taken from a dataset of patients with Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD), used to simulate the baseline covariates. BMI, Body Mass Index; TimeCOPD, Time since diagnosis of COPD; SD, Standard Deviation

From: Assessing causal treatment effect estimation when using large observational datasets

Baseline Covariate

Mean (SD)

Min – Max

Proportion (%)

BMI

25.62 (4.61)

16.00–40.00

Hospitalisation (Hosp = 1)

 Healthy

40.00

 Overweight

36.00

 Obese

26.70

TimeCOPD

 No admission, Healthy

9.59 (9.21)

0.10–35.00

 No admission, Overweight

9.13 (8.00)

0.10–30.00

 No admission, Obese

7.25 (9.92)

0.10–25.00

 Admission(s), Healthy

8.20 (8.03)

0.10–30.00

 Admission(s), Overweight

3.21 (2.47)

0.10–10.00

 Admission(s), Obese

5.67 (3.87)

0.10–15.00

Sputum Type (Z = 1)

77.65