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Table 1 Characteristics of all Ischemic Stroke Patients (N = 1022) and per Dutch Stroke Center, Admitted from March 2014 – August 2016 in Four Dutch Stroke Hospitals

From: Value-based healthcare in ischemic stroke care: case-mix adjustment models for clinical and patient-reported outcomes

Patient characteristicsAll patients (N = 1022)Stroke Center I, University (N = 222)Stroke Center II, District-based (N = 555)Stroke Center III, District-based (N = 216)Stroke Center IV, District-based (N = 29)P-valueMissing data, N (%)
Male, N (%)578 (57)139 (63)315 (57)109 (50)15 (52)0.076 
Age, median (IQR)74 (64–82)70 (59–80)76 (66–83)72 (63–82)78 (72–85)0.001 
Nationality     0.35184 (8)
 Native Dutch888 (87)171 (77)517 (93)174 (81)26 (90)  
 Foreigner50 (5)9 (4)34 (6)5 (2)2 (7)  
Smoking, N (%)225 (22)51 (23)131 (24)37 (17)6 (21)0.60472 (7)
SES, N (%)     < 0.0018 (1)
 Low335 (33)101 (45)131 (24)81 (38)22 (76)  
 Middle427 (42)94 (42)214 (39)119 (55)0 (0)  
 High252 (25)25 (11)207 (37)15 (7)5 (17)  
NIHSS on admission, median (IQR)4 (2–12)5 (2–9)4 (2–14)3 (1–8)3 (2–14)0.02875 (7)
CCI, median (IQR)1 (0–2)1 (0–2)1 (0–2)1 (0–2)1 (0–3)0.13389 (9)
Comorbidities, N (%)
 Hypertension546 (53)123 (55)332 (60)74 (34)17 (59)< 0.0019 (1)
 Myocardial infarction103 (10)15 (7)71 (13)17 (8)0 (0)0.01215 (2)
 Heart failure66 (7)2 (1)52 (9)8 (4)4 (15)< 0.00122 (2)
 Previous stroke/TIA274 (27)58 (26)156 (28)54 (25)6 (21)0.74510 (1)
 Carotid stenosis64 (6)11 (5)44 (8)8 (4)1 (3)0.09350 (5)
 PAOD80 (8)13 (6)46 (8)17 (8)4 (14)0.37414 (1)
 Diabetes mellitus39 (4)9 (4)25 (5)4 (2)1 (3)0.40915 (2)
 Connective tissue disease26 (3)0 (0)13 (2)13 (6)0 (0)< 0.00124 (2)
 Cancer112 (11)32 (14)44 (8)34 (16)2 (7)0.0046 (1)
 Metastasis24 (2)8 (4)10 (2)5 (2)1 (3)0.51427 (3)
Caregiver post-discharge, N (%)563 (55)140 (63)292 (53)121 (56)10 (34)0.066150 (15)
Onset-to-door time, median minutes (IQR)213 (80–672)275 (72–959)215 (93–641)149 (63–384)113 (41–368)0.002153 (15)
  1. IQR Inter-quartile range, SES Socio-economic status, derived from status scores based on zip codes, NIHSS National Institute of Health Stroke Scale, CCI Charlson comorbidity index, TIA Transient ischemic attack, PAOD Peripheral arterial occlusive disease