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Table 2 Results on the association parameter α obtained from the baseline Cox model, the TVCM and the joint model fitted to data generated considering a constant biomarker (scenario 1 of Table 1), α(0,0.3,0.6) and σε(0.1,0.3,0.5) with CV (3.1%,9.4%,15.6%). Mean of the maximum likelihood estimates (Est), empirical Monte Carlo standard error (ESE), asymptotic standard error (ASE), percentage bias (%Bias) and 95% coverage probabilities (CP) are shown

From: Joint model robustness compared with the time-varying covariate Cox model to evaluate the association between a longitudinal marker and a time-to-event endpoint

  α=0.3α=0.6
σεModelEstESEASE%BiasCPEstESEASE%BiasCP
 Cox.baseline0.2990.0560.056-0.3950.5980.0600.060-0.394
0.1TVCM(1x/week)0.2990.0560.056-0.3950.5980.0600.060-0.394
 joint model0.3020.0550.0560.7950.6050.0590.0590.894
 Cox.baseline0.2830.0540.055-5.7940.5570.0590.058-7.287
0.3TVCM(1x/week)0.2820.0540.055-6.0940.5570.0570.058-7.288
 joint model0.3020.0570.0570.7950.6060.0620.0611.095
 Cox.baseline0.2540.0520.052-15850.4890.0560.054-1845
0.5TVCM(1x/week)0.2520.0510.052-16840.4890.0530.054-1846
 joint model0.3020.0590.0580.7950.6070.0680.0661.294